Well in the country with your own hands
There is no way to do without water in the garden. Today, rural villages are increasingly found, equipped with centralized water supply systems. But in such villages you can see wells. Many summer residents argue that well water is better, fresher, tastier. In addition, the well in the country serves as an insurance fund, because the general system is not protected from breakdowns and interruptions in the supply of water, which are associated with an increase in the number of consumers and increased loads. And in areas where there are no centralized systems and open water bodies are far away, the well remains the only source of water.
- The device of the well in the country
- Where to dig a well
- Preparation for construction
- Equipment and tools
- Making homemade rings for a well
- Concrete preparation
- Ring setting method
- Completion: pumping, bottom formation
- Registration of a well in the country
The device of the well in the country
The well consists of 3 parts. To verify this, just type in the search engine “well in the country photo»And view the proposed results. The upper part is called the head; the middle, longest part – the main trunk; the part that is in the water – the water intake. Sometimes they also make a buzzer – the lowest part of the building, where water accumulates. The head protects the water from dust, grass, fallen leaves, insects, rain and snow. The main trunk prevents the freezing of water in the winter. Water is stored in the water intake.
The depth and structure of the well in the country depend on the amount of water that is consumed per day. If an object is built in low-water soils, then the water intake is placed as deep as possible, and a buzzer is also made. Thus, the technical indicators of the well directly depend on the characteristics of groundwater in a particular area.
Where to dig a well
If a person plans to dig a well in the country, then he will have to decide on the place. The first method, which allows you to find the treasured place, is called biolocation. Specialists analyze the amplitude of rotation of special wire frames and determine where groundwater is located. In most cases, such predictions come true, but the method of scientific justification does not have. Therefore, it is often called the real quackery..
The second method is less mysterious. Exploration wells and wells are excavated on the territory of the summer cottage. In addition, you can determine the depth of water by talking with your neighbors. If everyone has the same well depth, then in your case there will be a similar picture. You can dig anywhere!
If the water level is the same, the aquifer is horizontal, and the aquifers spread over several square kilometers. But if there are no wells near the site (300 meters), then correctly guessing the place the first time will be difficult.
What is worth remembering:
- Dig decorative well in the country it is preferable in hard soil, but, unfortunately, this is not always possible.
- The well should be located at the maximum distance from various sources of pollution (more than 30 meters from animals, toilets and places with manure).
- The well needs to be dug closer to consumers of water, but not less than 5 meters from the house.
- If the land is not overdried, then you should choose the highest place under the well.
Preparation for construction
You can dig a well in the country at any time. But there are some features that are associated with seasonal changes in the level of groundwater. Depth varies depending on the amount of precipitation (snow and rain). The aquifer reaches its highest level during spring snowmelt. Therefore, the flood period is considered the most unfavorable for laying a well.
Equipment and tools
It is unlikely that anyone will abandon the well in their area. How to make a well in the country? Not every summer resident decide to build it yourself. This business is certainly not an easy one. It requires certain knowledge, ingenuity and skills. But there would be a desire! Any owner can independently make a well from reinforced concrete rings.
To dig a well yourself, you need to have patience and the necessary equipment. And what is necessary for construction:
- various shovels;
- buckets with a volume of 12 to 30 liters;
- a winch, which is designed for a load of about 600 kilograms, for lowering reinforced concrete rings;
- device for lifting the earth;
- cart for transportation of soil;
- electric saw;
- concrete mixer or utensils for mixing the mortar;
- a pump and several hoses for pumping water;
- heavy hammer;
- electric carry and lighting;
- devices for installing rings in place;
- a hammer;
- cable or chain.
Finished rings are often expensive to purchase, so it’s easier to make them yourself. A lightweight version of the design is preferable – a diameter of about 90 centimeters with a wall thickness of 7 centimeters and a height of 90 centimeters. Materials for the manufacture of rings and formwork: gravel, cement, sand, reinforcement, solid oil, bolts and nuts, sheets of iron.
Making homemade rings for a well
On a flat surface, lay a shield made of thick plywood or boards. The width of the shield should be approximately 30 centimeters greater than the diameter of the reinforced concrete ring. For reliability and ease of use, the formwork is made of 2 layers of roofing iron.
About 4 centimeters must be added to the obtained length of the iron strips to connect them into rings. To do this, drill 2 holes at the ends of the strips on each side, pass the bolts through them and fix them with nuts, which are usually placed on the outside of the formwork. Bolts are recommended to be greased with solid oil before concreting..
The formwork must be secured to the panel using 3 to 4 wooden spacers. To increase the strength of concrete rings, it is customary to use ring reinforcement with a diameter of up to 8 millimeters and vertical racks. Next, put 2 rings in the height of the formwork.
Cement is taken 1 part, pure sand – 3 parts, washed gravel – 4. The smaller the gravel, the better. For two rings that are located at the bottom of the mine, the ratio of these components is as follows: 1.5 to 2 to 4. The concrete solution should be prepared in an iron bath or trough when using a concrete mixer. Cement and sand are thoroughly mixed, little water is poured. The thicker the concrete mortar, the higher the quality of the ring..
Further to the resulting mixture, add gravel and mix thoroughly again. With the help of a shovel or a scoop, you need to fill out the formwork and ram well with a bar. When it is filled about a quarter in height, the reinforcing ring should be lowered and reinforcing posts that have a height of 80 – 85 centimeters should be installed along its outer circumference. It will take about 6 – 8 racks. Then it is worth filling in three quarters and lowering the next ring. The remainder of the solution is poured.
To make the ring uniform in thickness, it is customary to insert 5 wooden inserts up to 7 centimeters in length into the formwork. They are removed after removal of the formwork. While concrete is solidifying, it cannot be shaken. The formwork is disassembled after 8-10 days, the ring carefully rises to the edge, rolls to another place and falls on two slats to the ground. It will finally harden in 20 days. The remaining rings are made similarly. Their number is determined based on the depth of the aquifer (6 – 12 rings).
Ring setting method
When all the rings are ready, you can proceed with their installation. To do this, dig a round hole with a diameter of up to 150 centimeters, put a ring in it and dig the soil inside. When, under its own weight, the ring goes down to the dug level, you need to set the next one and repeat the whole process again.
If the rings stopped falling under their own weight, it means that there was a deviation from the vertical axis – the rings went to the side. To continue work, it is recommended to lay a wooden shield on the upper ring and throw as many stones and earth on it as possible. The rings will precipitate after some time, and it will be possible to continue.
After laying two rings, a lifting mechanism is required. On both sides of the rings you need to install two tripods and lay a thick pipe with a diameter of about 50 millimeters. A bracket with a roller or pulley is fixed to it, through which the chain is thrown. One end of the chain should be lowered into the well to raise the bucket of soil to the surface, and on the other side you need to attach a “dog” for hanging the bucket.
Further, the rings need to be fastened with cement-sand mortar, carefully sealing all joints outside and inside. The top ring above the ground should rise about 40 centimeters. When water appears, digging a well in the country should not be stopped.
Completion: pumping, bottom formation
You need to go deeper until water begins to arrive quickly. To pump it out, it is customary to use a conventional deep-well pump. After pumping out the water should go deep another 50 centimeters. However, when the water level arrives quickly and the aquifer is opened to a depth sufficient to supply the required amount of water, you can stop working.
When filling a well, a lot of quicksand is washed up – fine or dusty sand saturated with water. It must be pumped out. The sand cannot be completely pumped out the first time, so the procedure will have to be repeated in a month.
At the top of the second ring, it is recommended to leave a hole for the pipe through which water will enter the house. The bottom of the finished well should be covered with well-washed large stones, and a layer of washed gravel or gravel should be laid on top. A clay castle should be made around the upper ring..
Registration of a well in the country
After completing the installation of the rings, many summer residents ask themselves the question – how to decorate the well in the country? Above the well, you can make a house that will protect the water from atmospheric precipitation and all kinds of debris. In the simplest version, a wooden house with a handle on the outside and a gable roof is built. Next, swing doors are built through which a bucket rises and falls on a chain. At the well you can erect a crane.
Making a well in a country house does not require much imagination. A concrete ring is usually lined with artificial or natural stone, as well as brick, or surrounded with a log cabin. You can close the ring on top with two hinged lids, and set the gable roof and gate above the well on massive supports. The roofing material is natural or soft tiles, copper sheet, wooden shingles or ordinary roofing iron.
Thus, the well remains one of the most common water supply options for country houses. Properly designed and equipped with a pump, it is able to provide iced water to the inhabitants of the cottage.