How to make a well with your own hands
It is difficult to imagine a land plot without a water supply in our time (with boilers, washing machines and dishwashers), because the organization of irrigation and the provision of water to a country house is an absolutely necessary thing. It can be a centralized highway or water from a well. There is also a widespread trend in the construction of wells in areas with centralized water supply. Why? Because many people are sure that “own” well water is tastier and fresher. You can build a well with your own hands without resorting to the help of hired specialists; this business is not extremely complicated, but still requires knowledge, ingenuity and skill.
- Benefits of Own Well
- Water search
- Folk way to determine the aquifer
- Choosing a place for a well Tubular or mine?
- Safety Precautions!
- Well digging materials
- Digging a well: work sequence
- Well protection against pollution
- Well in the well mine
- Operation and maintenance
- Making a well with your own hands
- A decorative well as a landscape decoration
Benefits of Own Well
As already mentioned, water from your well is tastier, but this is not the only advantage. This is a kind of safety fund, because the general system cannot guarantee the absence of breakdowns and subsequent interruptions in the water supply. In addition, the number of consumers is increasing and there are not a few cases when centralized water supply can not cope with increased loads. And if there is no city water supply at all on the site, and the open pond is far away, then the well becomes the only and invaluable source of water.
Digging wells with your own hands in the most attractive and appropriate place begins with a search for water, that is, first of all, you need to fix the presence of underground water resources, as well as determine the depth of the aquifer.
Equally important are their qualitative and quantitative characteristics and the rocks that separate the aquifer from the surface. A rock lies under the aquifer, which (an amazing fact) does not pass water, but does not give it away. The main sources of groundwater are atmospheric precipitation, as well as filtered water from open sources (lakes, rivers).
Groundwater is of three main types:
– high water layer – lies shallow from the surface. It is poorly cleaned, so it can not be used in water supply. For this reason, during the construction of wells, such a layer must be isolated from seepage into well mines. A similar type of groundwater is characterized by small volumes and depends on the degree of precipitation;
– unpaved – the nearest aquifer with constant reserves. The level of this type of groundwater in the well is set at the same level as the aquifer. In the natural nature, such waters are represented by springs – it is cool, crystal clear water with a pleasant taste;
– artesian water – lies at a considerable depth and is compressed by two water-resistant layers. When passing through this layer, water pours out under its own pressure, most often a fountain.
Folk way to determine the aquifer
The science of hydrogeology recognizes one reliable way to determine the depth of an aquifer – drilling exploratory wells. But this method is quite expensive and it is used infrequently for personal plots. But reconnaissance needs to be carried out, especially if there are no landmarks in adjacent areas.
A popular and economical method is biolocation; it consists in a person’s unique ability to respond to biofields with the help of primitive devices – metal frames. The depth of water resources depends on the amplitude of rotation of such a framework. The exact depth is not determined, but the optimal location of the future well will be found. Although, the reliability of such a technique by hydrogeologists is being questioned..
The best quality and time-tested method is to collect information about the actual aquifers in the district. It is necessary to be interested in the height of the well column, the depth and speed of replenishment of water sources.
Choosing a place for a well
The first thing you should pay attention to is the distance from the points of consumption (home). But this is not the only factor influencing the choice of the location of the well. It is necessary to analyze the following points:
– do-it-yourself digging of wells cannot be carried out near sources of soil pollution: manure and compost heaps, sewage discharge area, etc .;
– if the site is inclined, dig the well should be higher than the source of pollution;
– hydrogeological nature of the area – in marshy places the water is not always suitable for drinking due to the high probability of the occurrence of bog deposits.
The minimum distance from the nearest source of pollution should be 25 m to the well, attempts to dig a well shaft on the slopes of ravines, gullies and on the banks of the river are useless, because groundwater will be drained.
It is also important that the construction of the well with your own hands is strongly recommended in winter / autumn. Seasonal groundwater level fluctuations can be 1-2 meters, and in autumn and winter they have the lowest mark. If you ignore such recommendations and build a well, for example, in April, you can remain without water in the winter.
The next stage is the choice of the type of well: shaft or tubular, as well as the choice of drive for feeding – pump or manual. But, before proceeding with the direct excavation, you must also get all the necessary permits.
Tubular or shaft?
The main difference between these types of wells is the way they are created. Mine wells are dug up with a shovel, and tubular wells make their way. This choice depends on several reasons. With a deep aquifer, the mine well will have to dig for a very long time. But, in addition to this parameter, the number of stones between the surface and the aquifer also matters. If the tool is home-made, then it will be very difficult to break through solid rock, then, the more optimal option is the mine type.
Digging a well with your own hands must be made taking into account safety precautions. This is the most important question, since statistics say that accidents during such work are not single.
Basic requirements for observing work safety:
– free area: within a radius of 2-3 m from the well shaft;
– fencing the neck of the mine with a barrier of boards that are placed on the rib;
– every time before starting work it is necessary to check the strength of the rope lifting the tub loaded with soil;
– at a depth of more than six meters you need to use a safety rope;
– mechanical lifts must be equipped with a self-braking mechanism;
– daily check of serviceability of lifting devices;
– warning the employee in the face of the descent of something;
– periodic checks of air quality in the well using a burning candle. If necessary, ventilate the shaft (with an umbrella or vacuum cleaner).
Well digging materials
Typically, a well is equipped with rings 0.8 m high, 1 m in diameter, with grooves. There are larger rings, but they are used very rarely. You can make rings for the well with your own hands, since the materials for their manufacture are available, and working with concrete does not require high professionalism. But still, the basics of concrete preparation technology need to be known and strictly observe the proportions of the constituent “ingredients”, use steel wire and rods for reinforcement, and also pre-construct the formwork from two cylindrical surfaces.
Also, a mine well can be made from a log house, however, the life of such a well is significantly reduced, from stone and brick – a costly and inconvenient material.
If the groundwater lies deep, then a metal pipe or plastic pipe is used for the construction of the well, but subject to a shallow depth. When using the pump, an additional filter must be installed at the bottom.
Digging a well: work sequence
One person is engaged in direct digging of the well, and the rest work on the surface: they lift the selected soil and take it to the side.
So how to dig a well with your own hands? The process is this: digging a hole, then the first ring fits into it. The soil from under it is selected, and then, as it goes deeper, the next concrete ring is mounted. In a similar way, the entire column of the mine builds up, it slides down as the soil is sampled under the lower ring.
A great option when there will be three workers. Then the work is distributed according to this principle: the first works in the face with a crowbar and a shovel. He digs the ground and turns the crowbar, stones found on the way. The stone is tied with ropes and removed from the well.
At the mouth of the well is another worker, whose task is to raise the bucket with the help of a gate on wooden goats. He also takes the worked-out rock to the place provided for this purpose. The third person at this time has a rest and is waiting for a shift change. The process is intensive, with workers often succeeding each other..
At a depth of three meters, the air temperature in the well shaft does not exceed 10 degrees, the humidity is high, and the air in the well is not independently ventilated. You can correct the situation with the help of an umbrella. It must, in the open state, of course, be lowered and raised from the well. The microclimate after such procedures improves slightly, which means that the employee’s activity is returning to normal..
The well builds up to the level of the aquifer. Its approach becomes noticeable by a decrease of several degrees in air temperature, and mini fontanels form on the walls of the mine. This stage is the most responsible and difficult, including, therefore, you need to prepare for it beforehand and have a good rest, since digging in an aquifer is hard labor.
After rest, active work begins, it is necessary to take out the soil with water at an accelerated pace, because the debit of the well depends on this process. Therefore, you need to sweat and dig 3-4 meters without a break.
Important: a mud pump can be a good helper in this matter..
The bottom of the well shaft is lined with gravel, which will act as a filter (15-30 cm thick). The gap between the tunnel and the shaft column is covered with gravel, the last concrete ring does not go into the ground.
Well protection against pollution
How to make a well with your own hands and protect it from the flood and external pollution factors? Filling the junction between the rings with a linen cord, as well as cementing, is recommended to protect the mine from getting into the water pipe. And the outer surface of the mine is covered with a waterproofing material (a clay castle is being built).
Important: clay castle – reliable protection against external polluting factors: melt spring and rain water and other pollution.
After filling the well with water, it should be pumped out to obtain high-quality and crystal clear water..
Well in the well mine
Cases of contact with quicksand are not isolated. It can be completed only under a successful set of circumstances – low speed of movement of soils and low power flow of water. But the presence of a swimmer is also an irrefutable plus – an excellent, constant flow of water.
Important: when the digging of a well takes place in a quicksand, it is necessary to use the castle type of connection of the rings, that is, they must fit tightly into the grooves.
At the bottom of the quicksand is a wooden shield made of hard wood. It is wrapped in a metal mesh with a galunny weaving method. These actions protect the well from siltation and seepage of sand..
Operation and maintenance
Any well must meet sanitary requirements. To limit the access of animals, a fence should be built around the well. And also the well should be equipped with a cover that will protect it from insects, leaves, and precipitation.
During the year, the well must be inspected using a powerful light source. If foreign objects are found there, they must be removed.
As for the intake, it should be regular for updating the water. If the well did not function in winter, then in the spring it is recommended to renew the water in the well several times.
Making a well with your own hands
The arrangement of the well ends with the design of a canopy, on which a wooden gate with a metal handle is installed. Then a cable or a strong cord is attached to the collar. And for fastening the bucket, a segment of the chain is used, which helps to immerse the bucket in water.
The top of the canopy can be designed in the form of a kind of house, for example, with a hinged door, a gable roof. The upper ring can be decorated with facing brick or stone. It will turn out not just a well, but with decorative elements.
A decorative well as a landscape decoration
The main material for the manufacture of a decorative well is wooden logs. This material is associated with the cleanliness, comfort of wooden towers in the Russian traditions of housing construction. A decorative well with your own hands is an excellent solution for giving the site an unpretentious and extraordinary look. If an ordinary well is not needed, then why not build such a wonderful and original structure. Such a well plays the role of a decorative element and pleases the eye of guests and owners of the site. It is a very attractive structure with a log house, a bucket and a lid, everything is like in the present, only without a mine with water.
There are times that such decorative wells hide sewer hatches, and most often they are used as garden decor. Plus, in their log house you can plant flowers.
Pure and tasty water in the well, a beautifully decorated ground part and, most importantly, do-it-yourself labor is a great combination. And, however, having spent so much effort on the construction of the well, you need to take care of its dignified and attractive appearance. Then he will fulfill not only his direct purpose, but will also look beautiful.