Replacing old wiring in an apartment
As a person without blood will be just a lifeless body, so an apartment without electricity in our time remains only an unsettled box. Indeed, it is thanks to electricity that we receive many benefits, without which we can not imagine our life. However, the state of the energy supply system in our home should be monitored as conscientiously as our health. And you do not need to wait until the moment when the replacement of the wiring in the apartment becomes already a resuscitation process. It is best to change wiring before a short circuit fire occurs in worn out connections.
- Start: project, calculations
- Need to prepare carefully
- Replacing wiring – get started
- The most important thing is checking
Start: project, calculations
Almost always, people with a Slavic mentality begin to engage in a long and dreary business only at the moment when the “fried rooster pecks” in an unapproachable place. Is such a situation suitable for replacing wiring? Often. Here are the main reasons that people decide on such a feat:
- major repairs of the apartment or its redevelopment (which also ends with a large repair)
- problems with electricity – frequent power surges, sparking in sockets and switches, finally, a fire that almost happened (or even happened) due to shorted wiring
- increase in the number of electrical appliances and increased load on the electricity supply system
In fact, it is the third reason that should be the main one. But, alas, not all of us are so prudent. But how many problems could have been avoided with the timely replacement of electrics.
However, if we got down to business, we should do it right. And first of all, we are simply obliged to calculate what load and in what places will fall on our new wiring. What exactly needs to be done:
- for appliances with the highest power consumption (mainly electric appliances, water heaters, a washing machine, a refrigerator, an electric kettle and the like fall into this category), it is best to plan a separate wiring line designed for increased load
- look in advance for places for sockets and switches so that they are really convenient to use
- determine the type of fixtures in the entire apartment
- calculate the total energy consumption for all devices and equipment that you have (this can be done according to technical data sheets), and even better take into account the planned acquisitions
That is, we need a wiring diagram. If you understand electricity, then you can do it yourself, but in any case, a specialist consultation will not be superfluous.
Considering that the replacement of the old wiring is carried out on peeled and rid of plaster, wallpaper, paint and the like walls and ceilings, you can immediately figure out whether the old channels are suitable for a new cable. If there is such an opportunity, it is best to use them at least partially, since all these channels were made according to all the rules, and the wires laid in them will last longer.
Need to prepare carefully
After we have decided on the scheme, it is necessary to purchase all the necessary materials. Replacing electricians in an apartment is an important matter, and you will need high-quality materials.
What exactly needs to be acquired:
- cable of required length and cross section
- corrugated or plastic tube into which the cable will be “packed” during installation
- all necessary sockets, socket boxes, switches and junction boxes
- tools with which work will be carried out
So, cable – recently, for residential premises, they prefer to take a copper cable, because its characteristics in electrics are much better than aluminum. And although the price is appropriate, it’s still not worth saving in such a case. Now about the thickness of the wire: for a hidden wiring, a copper cable with a cross section of 1.5 square meters is quite suitable. mm, and for an open one you need a thicker wire – 2.5 square meters. mm But more precisely, you can well find out from an electrician who did for you (or checked your own made) wiring diagram.
By the way, it is also not recommended to save on sockets and switches – choose reliable brands. And do not forget to immediately determine their design, because the horses at the crossing do not change. Choose accessories suitable for the overall interior of your apartment.
And of course, one of the most burning questions remains: how much does a wiring replacement cost? Only a professional electrician will be able to give you a clear answer, who will calculate the costs of the necessary materials and work. Many people think that replacing your wiring with your own hands can be cheaper than hiring a team of workers, but this is only true if you yourself are well versed in the matter. Otherwise, it may well happen that the avaricious pays twice.
Replacing wiring – get started
Everything is ready for work with us. The scheme is drawn up, the materials are purchased, you yourself or a team of electricians changed into work clothes.
In order to change the electrics in the apartment, you should either clean the old channels for the cable, or make new ones in the places that were planned and marked on the wiring replacement project. Most often both one and the other are done, since the channels professionally arranged by the builders can well serve for many more years, and the isolation for a new arrangement of sockets, switches or lamps is done additionally. The use of old channels is most preferable if the wiring is replaced in Khrushchev.
What applies to the practical laying of the electric wire?
- creating (or cleaning old) channels for wiring
- cutting recesses for sockets, switches and junction boxes at the right places
- electrical installation
- switchboard assembly
So, we clean the ready-made channels from concrete and other debris, which could complicate the installation of wiring. After that, we make new strobes in the right places. Professionals prefer to create these grooves with a chaser, whose diamond blades are most convenient for working with concrete floors. Of course, if it is not possible to purchase or rent a chipper, you can use a grinder or jackhammer, but with these tools it is very difficult to make smooth channels.
By the way, gating is a terribly dusty, dirty and noisy job, so it’s best to immediately warn your neighbors about any inconvenience, as well as take care of your own personal protective equipment: a respirator and headphones. All chipped material (concrete chips and dust) must be removed immediately. For this, there are so-called industrial vacuum cleaners that can clean such garbage without much harm. Moreover, it is necessary to vacuum not only the floors, but also the channels themselves in order to clearly determine the correctness (depth, width and evenness) of the new strobe.
After complete testing, we cut out all the recesses in which the junction boxes, sockets and switches will be located. To do this, use a perforator with a special nozzle in the form of a crown of the desired diameter. The channels and recesses are cleaned with a nozzle-blade for the same punch.
When all the passages in the walls and ceiling are completely ready, we begin to lay the cable in the channels. We fix the wires in the strobes with mounting clamps. Although, in principle, you can simply close up the channels with the cable with building gypsum or plaster. As the cable is laid, we install junction boxes and socket boxes, which are also fixed. Everything must be done according to the project (scheme) of wiring developed with an electrician. Do not forget that exposed areas of the copper wire can oxidize very quickly, so when connecting the contacts, take care to carefully cover them with a layer of solder.
And the last stage of work is the assembly of a power electrical panel. It is best to install different machines on separate lines of different capacities, it’s easier then to monitor the state of our electrical system.
Another important tip is to try to do everything in such a way that, after finishing work, facilitate access to the cable anywhere – just for the future. Of course, a copper cable, if properly laid, can last more than 30 years, but there is a hole in the old woman.
The most important thing is checking
They assembled everything, connected everything, installed sockets and other auxiliary elements. The most important thing remains – to check whether everything is done correctly, whether our new circuit will burn with a New Year’s garland when connected.
The cable insulation resistance is tested with a megohmmeter, which will provide high voltage for a reliable test. If everything is in order, turn on the machines and check for voltage at all key points.
Well? Happened? All! You can start decorating.
It seems to be not difficult? A simple scheme is to make a project, purchase materials, lay out gates, conduct wiring, connect everything in an electrical panel – and, voila, a new electrician is ready in the house. However, even with the apparent simplicity, when replacing the wiring, there are many nuances, so make sure that at the head of the work was a real professional. Even if you plan to do the job on your own, let an electrician consultant stay next to you, you never know what surprises can happen at any stage of the work. Better let the connoisseur be at hand so that you don’t have to redo everything later. Good luck in work!