Local sewerage of a country house
The level of improvement of a country house currently has the same requirements as a city apartment. During the construction of new facilities, the sewerage of a country house, as well as water supply, is laid down initially in the project. The presence of communications is one of the basic requirements of buyers of real estate located outside the city. Their absence makes housing unattractive, which affects the cost. This is beneficial for those people who are able to understand the issue and perform work on their own, while spending the minimum amount of money on the purchase of consumables, tools and the use of special equipment for earthworks.
- Drawing up the scheme of the internal sewerage
- Sewerage system installation
- Types of external sewage in autonomous houses
- The choice of a plastic septic tank
- Installation of a plastic septic tank
Drawing up the scheme of the internal sewerage
Drawing up a competent and clear project, in accordance with which water supply and sewerage of a country house will be organized, is a priority. To solve it, it is recommended to involve a specialist with education and experience in developing such structures. The funds invested at this stage will pay off with quality work sewage systems, performed without errors. Although you can spend time and study special literature on this issue, delving into all the details. This will help later in the maintenance and repair of communications, because the subtleties of their work will be thoroughly known to the owner of the house.
Sewerage scheme is made taking into account the plan of the object. At the same time, the need for compact placement of premises, in which water will be supplied and drained, is taken into account. We are talking about the kitchen, bathrooms, bathrooms, showers. Ideally, they try to “tie” all plumbing to a single sewer pipe that goes directly to a septic tank or cesspool. In a multi-storey building, risers are required. All the little things taken into account in the project will facilitate the implementation of work in the future. An approximate sewage scheme of a country house can be such.
The diagram shows the number of units of sanitary equipment and their installation location. Reflects the methods of supplying them with clean water. When compiling the scheme, the depth of soil freezing in a given area is taken into account, because the location of the sewer pipes, which excludes the possibility of their freezing, depends on this. Attention is also paid to the level of groundwater, on which the organization of the work of the external sewage system depends. With a deep arrangement of groundwater, the sewage system will work by gravity. In other cases, it will be necessary to use equipment for the forced withdrawal of treated wastewater from the system..
If a country house is large and it provides for the arrangement of a swimming pool, sauna, jacuzzi, then it is rather difficult, and sometimes impossible, to sewer at the proper engineering level. Such large-scale projects require the involvement of professional builders. If the dimensions of the house are not as grandiose as the list of necessary plumbing, then the sewerage of a country house with its own hands is carried out without problems.
Sewerage system installation
1. Installation work on the arrangement of sewage begins after the construction of the foundation of the house, its walls and roof. The presence of interior partitions also simplifies the task of estimating the outlets of drains when installing plumbing.
2. Determined with the location of the septic tank, which is desirable to choose next to the road. This will facilitate the further access of the cesspool machine. Also, the distance between the house and the septic tank, which should be at least five meters, matters. The depth of the septic tank is calculated taking into account the volume of wastewater, while the bottom of the well should be located a meter below the level of freezing of the soil.
3. The collector, consisting of tightly connected sewer pipes, is located at a slope. This ensures unhindered passage of waste water as well as fecal fluids. The slope must be at least two centimeters per meter of collector.
4. Installation of the sewerage of a country house involves the use of cast-iron or plastic pipes, the diameter of which reaches 100 or more millimeters. Moreover, for outdoor work special plastic pipes are used, painted in orange. Joints need good sealing. The depth of the trench is calculated to a centimeter and does not dig with a margin. This will ensure the hardness of the base under the pipes, which will not sag under the weight of the bulk soil. If this rule is ignored, then the pipe will bend, which will lead to the appearance of its blockage in this place. Have to take measures to eliminate blockages.
5. When installing the internal sewage, risers, like collectors, are made of pipes with a diameter of 100 or 110 mm. This will allow them to exceed the diameter of pipelines coming from plumbing equipment, with the exception of toilets. By the way, it is advisable to place the toilets in close proximity to the riser.
Types of external sewage in autonomous houses
Usually, in each village outside the city, only central water supply is organized, so there are no special problems with supplying water to a country house. Sewerage is more difficult, since for a long time when living outside the city people dispensed with the amenities located in the courtyard. Therefore, it is necessary to organize an effective sewage system autonomously for each owner of a country house, choosing one of four varieties:
- Cesspool. This option has been known since ancient times, ineffective, applicable only in small country houses with a small amount of wastewater due to the minimum installed equipment and a small number of permanent residents. Periodically, the pumping of accumulated wastewater is required, for which they use the services of wastewater.
- Septic tank arranged in the form of concrete overflow wells. There must be at least two wells in the system, and three for better cleaning. Wells are most often made of reinforced concrete rings, the diameter of which varies from one meter to two. Forced cleaning with the help of a cesspool machine is also required, but less frequently than in the first case. Since part of the water will go into the ground through filter well.
- Septic tank made of plastic, fiberglass or metal. These are finished products, the installation of which has its own characteristics, which must be taken into account. Treated water is redirected to the filtration fields. To clean the tank from sludge settling at the bottom of the sludge, a periodic call of special equipment is also required. Manufacturers offer various types of structures for such septic tanks, which differ in the volume of waste water being treated and in the level of depth in the ground..
- The station, which provides deep biological treatment, is the most modern and efficient local sewage system for a country house. It is used, as a rule, in multi-storey cottages with several sanitary units. Due to heavy loads, the system is equipped with pumps providing forced withdrawal of purified water.
The choice of a plastic septic tank
It is clear that the sewage system in a country house cannot do without building a reservoir for collecting liquid waste or installing a finished septic tank, which can be cumulative or treatment. The storage septic tank is made in the form of a single-chamber container, after filling which, it is emptied. In principle, this structure resembles a cesspool, but modern material provides better tightness of the structure, which positively affects the environment.
When choosing a storage capacity, experts recommend taking into account the following points:
- tank capacity;
- structural strength;
Purification septic tanks are much more complicated in design than storage tanks, which, of course, affects their cost. These devices consist of several cameras connected in series with each other..
In the first compartment, sediments of solid fractions are collected and processed as a result of anaerobic fermentation, after which they enter the next compartment of the septic tank in a liquefied state. In the second compartment, the incoming wastewater is treated. Next, the water enters the drainage system and is discharged into the soil..
The number of chambers determines the degree of wastewater treatment. The design of three-chamber septic tanks allows to achieve 75 percent purification of sewage water. This indicates quality processing. For complete water purification, equipment with a biofilter is purchased. Such installations are volatile.
Installation of a plastic septic tank
1) Work begins with digging a pit, calculated for the dimensions of the purchased capacity, taking into account a stock of 30-40 cm.
2) A concrete slab is laid on the bottom leveled with the help of the building level, on which the tank is installed, fixing it with bandage cables. This will avoid pushing light plastic containers to the surface as a result of seasonal swelling of the soil..
3) The free space of the pit is filled with a cement-sand mixture, while one part of the sand is taken for five parts of cement. Every 20 cm, compaction of the poured layer is carried out..
Many do not trust plastic structures and build septic tanks made of concrete rings. This time-tested technology also allows for the efficient operation of an outdoor sewage system. Several men who are at least a little versed in the basics of construction work can do the whole complex of work independently. Help from a consultant will help you find answers to your questions. Although attracting professionals will significantly speed up the work.