Do-it-yourself water supply in the country
No one needs to convince anyone that the water supply in the country is necessary. This is so obvious. Therefore, we will immediately dwell in more detail on how to make a water supply system at the cottage with our own hands, taking into account its operation at different times of the year. We will separately consider summer and winter water pipelines, talk about water-folding devices, and also list the necessary tools.
- Wells and wells
- Do-it-yourself summer water supply
- Winter country water supply
- Plastic water pipe
- Connecting the pump to the water supply
Wells and wells
First of all, you need to choose a water source. The cheapest and easiest way to provide fresh water is to build a well. It can have different depths. It all depends on the depth of the groundwater. Basically, it does not exceed fifteen meters, but because the construction of the well is cost-effective. However, such a structure provides small volumes of water (up to 200 liters per hour), in addition, various impurities (nitrates, heavy metals, bacteria) are found in it..
A more acceptable option is the construction of a sand well, the depth of which, depending on the aquifer, can be from 15 to 30 meters.
Such a structure per hour can produce about 1.5 cubic meters of water, which is enough for a small house.
Drilling a sand well is carried out using the auger method – the rock is removed to the surface. This usually takes 3 to 5 days. However, the sandy aquifer contains a lot of clay and sand, and therefore in this case, filtering equipment will be required.
The best way to supply water is an artesian well. Water rises from it under pressure. Such a well can produce about 10 cubic meters of water per hour. In this case, a casing of metal pipes must be used. The life of such a well is about fifty years..
Do-it-yourself summer water supply
First, we will consider the installation of a water supply system in the country, which will only be operated in the summer. Such a water supply is used for watering at the dacha of plants, connecting summer soul and current household needs. In winter, its operation is not provided. Summer water supply in the country can be both permanent and collapsible.
The most common is the water pipes (hoses) which lie directly on the ground. Such a water supply is made from simple rubber or silicone hoses connected to each other by adapters. Connection adapters are commercially available and are made of galvanized steel or plastic. On sale there are also special latches on the one hand, which have “ruffles” where they put the hose on, and on the other hand a convenient spring-loaded connector. These latches can be connected and disconnected in one motion. They are quite capable of providing a reliable joint. Note that when buying hoses, you need to take rubber with thick walls, which are reinforced with nylon fibers. Of course, plastic water supply in the country will cost less, but such hoses will last longer – 15 years, at least.
For a permanent summer water supply, pipes must be laid in the ground, and water taps should be brought to the surface. In this case, it is enough just to fill the pipes a little with earth so as not to trip over them and to protect them from theft.
The main disadvantage of a permanent summer water supply system is the need to observe a bias to the connection point – to the main highway. At this lowest point in the water supply, a drain valve is placed in order to drain the water for the winter. Otherwise, water may freeze and break pipes..
Winter country water supply
Now let’s talk about more solid and capital schemes. Let’s start with a description of the winter water supply. Winter does not mean that it can be used only in winter, just in this name it is understood that the water supply is carried out according to a permanent scheme and it can be operated at any time of the year.
To supply water from a well, it is better to use a submersible pump. Its power is selected depending on the depth with which water will be supplied. For a well up to ten meters deep, a rather small “brook” or “aquarius”. If water is supplied from the well, you will have to buy a more powerful pump, which will cost significantly more.
Due to the fact that during the installation of a winter water supply system, the pump must be connected to a voltage source, it is permissible to combine the cable and water supply in a single casing of plastic sewer pipes. It protects against freezing and mechanical damage..
Plastic water pipe
To lay the water supply, you can use plastic pipes with soldered joints or on special plastic fittings. For solder joints use a special electric soldering iron. It is not very expensive, in addition, in specialized stores, such soldering irons are often offered for hire. To install the pipeline, a soldering iron will be needed no more than a day. Connections on fittings are performed with bare hands without a soldering iron. For an ordinary summer residence, pipes with a diameter of 20 or 25 millimeters are quite suitable.
When laying a water supply pipe should be placed below the level of freezing soil. The value of this value for each specific climate zone can be found in special reference books..
But often, in order not to dig a too deep trench, you can use one of the following methods:
- Pour a pipe laid at a depth of 60 centimeters with a 20-30 centimeter layer of insulation from foam crumb, furnace slag, expanded clay, etc. The main condition is that the insulation does not absorb moisture well and is strong enough.
- Insulate the pipeline with a thermal insulation system consisting of special thermal insulation and a corrugated polyethylene casing. With this system, the depth of the trench can be made much less (about 30 centimeters).
- Lay a heating cable that allows you to completely lay pipes on the surface. But you have to pay a lot for electricity.
It should be noted that the trench should be approaching the house at a right angle, because it will be necessary to dig up the foundation, which is fraught with its settlement and the formation of cracks in the wall.
Connecting the pump to the water supply
To connect the pump to the water supply near the well, it is necessary to arrange a pit, one meter deep, and measuring 70×70 centimeters. The walls of the pit are laid out with a brick, or strengthened in another way, for example, with antiseptic-impregnated boards. It would be more correct to pour the bottom of the pit with concrete or to fill it with crushed stone as a last resort and tamp.
A water pipe with a “ruff” is removed and fixed into the pit for attaching the hose that comes from the pump, as well as the electrical wire. The function of the pit is that, if necessary, the pump can be easily disconnected and removed. The pit is insulated to prevent freezing of water in the pump hose.
To connect the pump, a waterproof outlet is installed or a hermetic contact connector, better known as “mother-father”, is used. The main condition is that the pump can be safely connected and disconnected, even if the cable is live.
Water folding devices
In order to make water supply in the country, we decided. Now we will dwell in more detail on water-folding devices. For use in outdoor conditions, bronze or cast-iron valves, as well as ordinary cranes with crane axle boxes, are quite suitable. Ball valves have an attractive appearance, but it is undesirable to use them: when the valve has been in the open position for a long time or vice versa – closed, as well as with strong temperature fluctuations and atmospheric precipitation, such valves can quickly fail.
The most complex element of a water supply system is a water intake unit, which is located outdoors or in an unheated room. He has special requirements, because he has to work at low temperatures. Water columns are usually used. The disadvantage of the column is the complexity of the installation and the high cost.
Simplified water supply scheme
There is a simpler water supply scheme, which is far from perfect, but can also be recommended for summer residents. The scheme of the so-called crane with a drain hole is shown in the figure..
The principle of operation is quite simple and straightforward. In the lower part there is an additional drain, which has a very small hole, selected empirically. Typically, the hole diameter is one millimeter. When the tap is in the closed position, the water that fills the “jib” flows through this hole into the pit and does not have time to freeze. When the faucet is in the open position, some of the water also ends up in the pit and is absorbed into the ground, but since the diameter of the hole is very small, the main flow of water goes through the taps. In summer, the drain valve is completely shut off, the “winter” valve remains open, and only the “summer” valve is used.
Such a water supply scheme in the country has many drawbacks, among which two main ones can be distinguished: constant humidity in the pit and water loss. But due to its simplicity and reliability, this design is actively used in cottages..
To perform the installation of the water supply in the country, you will need the following tools:
- Pipe cutter
- Adjustable spanner
- Sets of gas and wrenches
- A set of keys
In order not to tear off the skin of the palms when tightening the fittings, use the usual gas key of the second number. A good shovel with a small crowbar is useful for earthwork.
And finally, we note that first of all, you need to breakdown the future water supply route on the ground, measure and calculate the number of taps, tees, corners, pipes, etc..