The device of a septic tank made of concrete rings
One of the main components of the local sewerage system of a summer residence, private house or cottage is a septic tank made of concrete rings. There are constructions made of brick and jellied concrete, however, in terms of prevalence, it is far from reinforced concrete rings. In recent years, ready-made plastic tanks have appeared on the construction market, but concrete products are stronger and more durable..
- Concrete Ring Making
- The right place for a septic tank
- Septic tank made of concrete rings: scheme of work
- Option 1 – using mechanization
- Option 2 – manual work
- Frost septic tanks are not afraid
Concrete Ring Making
Rings for septic tanks are produced by factories engaged in the production of reinforced concrete products. In this case, the production process is governed by the requirements of GOST 8020-90. The height of the reinforced concrete rings is 90 cm, but the diameter can be different. Therefore, on sale you can find meter, one and a half meter and even two meter rings. In the manufacture of these products, concrete of heavy grades is used, as well as reinforcing mesh. The design of the ring provides for the presence of metal loops rigidly connected to the frame. Hinges are necessary for moving products using lifting devices. The finished product is allowed to stand for at least two weeks, after which the concrete reaches the necessary strength.
Also, the production of structures with “locks” was established, which allows for a more tight fit of the well rings to each other. It is clear that the cost of such products is higher than ordinary rings, but the septic tank waterproof rate increases. In this case, the probability of horizontal displacement of the “mine” is reduced to zero.
Rings with a bottom are also available. When using them, the waterproofing of a septic tank made of concrete rings is greatly simplified, because it will be necessary to smear only the places of their docking with bitumen. In addition, factories make concrete covers with openings and well hatches.
The right place for a septic tank
The design and construction of a septic tank made of concrete rings is regulated by the sanitary standards applicable for sewer buildings. In accordance with these requirements, a place is selected for the septic tank and other related facilities. In this case, the residential building should be at a distance:
- 5 m from the septic tank;
- 25 m from the filtering trenches;
- 8 m from filter wells;
- 300 m from the drain stations;
- 50 m from aerobic aeration plants, the productivity of which is up to 700 cubic meters per day.
If a well with drinking water is located on the site, then the distance from it to the septic tank should be at least 30 meters. Compliance with sanitary legislation is mandatory for all citizens. Violation of the established rules entails both administrative and criminal liability.
Septic tank made of concrete rings: scheme of work
The operation scheme of a septic tank made of concrete rings is as follows:
Its main purpose is to collect wastewater, their gradual clarification and treatment. A septic tank consists of three main structural elements:
- The first well with a concrete bottom acts as a septic tank, in which settling of ingested liquid household waste takes place. It should account for half of the total volume of the structure. Sometimes anaerobic bacteria are added to it, under the influence of which decomposition of solids occurs and the accumulation of their residues in the form of bottom sediment. If there are no water intake facilities on the site, then biological treatment is not used.
- The second well, connected by overflow to the first, provides another level of filtration. It also has sealed walls and a bottom..
- The third well, connected by overflow to the second, already has a sand and gravel bed instead of a concrete bottom, through which clarified water seeps into the ground.
Often in practice are limited to two containers. Overflows are made of plastic pipes (110 mm) of orange color, designed for outdoor use. In the walls of the rings, holes for pipes are made using a puncher. The sewer pipe going from the building to the septic tank should be located at a slope (approximately two centimeters per meter). In the case of competent construction and installation works, a septic tank can function for a long time. As you can see, do do-it-yourself septic tank from the rings can be any, even a beginner, builder. At the same time, work can be accelerated by involving special equipment for digging a pit and lowering concrete rings into it. Naturally, this will require additional costs for the payment of services. You can also do almost all the work manually, reducing costs to a minimum. You also have to resort to the manual version of the work if the equipment cannot be accessed. Let’s consider both ways.
Option 1 – using mechanization
- Start the septic tank device from concrete rings with an accurate calculation of the required volume. The quantity of rings that will need to be bought and delivered to the place of deployment will depend on this value. The volume is calculated either by the number of people permanently residing in the house, or by the number of sanitary facilities. From established practice it follows that the depth of the septic tank is from three to four meters, so they cost 4-5 rings. Moreover, to increase the volume, products with a large diameter are selected. They are located in the form of two wells, and the first should have a larger volume.
- At the next stage, using an excavator, they dig a pit in accordance with the dimensions of the purchased concrete rings and taking into account their free passage during installation. Do not allow the ring to jam when descending into the pit, since the lifting device will not be able to pull it back. This operation is prohibited for the safety of these works. If the ring still gets stuck, you will have to manually dig it in. The downtime of the crane is subject to payment. The bottom is leveled at the construction level.
- After the completion of excavation work, the delivery of reinforced concrete rings is ordered, which is carried out by trucks equipped with a lifting device. At the same time, the access for the car directly to the pit is freed. Concrete rings and caps are being installed.
- The joints and bottom are waterproofed with cement mortar, unless special rings with a “bottom” concrete base have been ordered.
- Holes are made for pipes and their installation. Gaps close with cement mortar.
- The free space in the pit is buried, carefully tamped.
Option 2 – manual work
Many doubt the ability to perform work without involving technology, frankly not understanding how to make a septic tank from rings manually. However, the “grandfather” method is still alive and in some cases is the only possible, albeit very laborious. With this method, they work with meter rings, the weight of which is 600 kg. Delivery by truck is carried out to a free site on which the rings are unloaded.
Then each ring is rolled manually to the place of the future septic tank. They install and begin to dig up the ground, while the ring gradually sinks into the ground. When the first concrete product is level with the surface of the soil, a second ring is manually installed on it. The process of digging continues further. To raise the earth, builders come up with various devices. Of course, manual installation takes quite a while, but the method is proven and the result can still be achieved.
Frost septic tanks are not afraid
Some people after installing a septic tank are worried about the possibility of freezing in the winter. Theoretically, of course, a septic tank can freeze. However, practice shows that a well-designed and technologically correctly installed septic tank can withstand even the lowest temperatures. However, experts recommend that before the onset of cold weather, the septic tank should be cleaned of wastewater and accumulated sludge by calling a cesspool machine. It is advisable to insulate the cover of the hatch intended for pumping out for the winter.
The design of the septic tank made of concrete rings is suitable for sewage in cottages, in rural houses, country cottages with a small amount of drains. The advantages of this septic tank include low cost, non-volatility, partial wastewater treatment.