How to make a sewer for a summer residence
Sewerage for summer cottages is becoming more common. This is a very correct phenomenon, because the life of people should be worthy and comfortable. In addition, modern sewerage kits are two steps ahead of the ordinary drain /cesspool, Wastewater is processed, treated and discharged to the area. However, the cost of a high degree of convenience is more expensive than the traditional option.
- General information about the construction of sewage
- Preliminary design – the path to success
- Installation and types of sewerage device
- Sewer with absorbable well
- Cesspool – Tested Type
- Sewerage in the cottage in two parts
- Septic – the best option price / quality
- Priorities and minuses of the treatment plant
General information about the construction of sewage
A sewerage device for a modern type of cottage hides a rather complex multi-stage system, consisting of several components:
- a set of plumbing equipment;
- supply pipe lines;
- purification station, septic tank, inspection well, sampling well;
- outlet pipe;
- filter field.
All this high-tech equipment can be divided into internal, external and treatment plants. The reliability and reliability of all components of the system depends on the correct choice and thoroughness of installation. For the system to function well, preliminary work is required, which consists in geological exploration of the corresponding area on which the sewage system is planned. The main factor influencing the choice of the system and further design is the type of soil and the level of groundwater. The landscape and the presence of a natural reservoir also play a significant role. The specific choice of the treatment plant depends on:
- operating conditions – seasonal / permanent residence;
- equipment quantities – washing, shower, toilet, washing machine and dishwasher;
- the amount of money provided for sewage equipment.
First you need to determine the daily volume of wastewater, and then this figure is multiplied by three and the model of the treatment system is selected.
The sewerage device in the country is very convenient if it was originally included in the project of housing under construction, that is, pipes and ventilation ducts have already been laid. And if sewage was not provided, then this does not limit its use, but only increases the volume of the preparatory phase.
Preliminary design – the path to success
Before embarking on excavation and construction work, you need to create a project called a sewerage scheme in the country. Such a scheme directly depends on the layout of the house, it is advisable to think through everything to the smallest detail, pay attention to the compactness of the rooms (kitchen, bathroom, bathroom), because it is in them that water will be supplied and drained.
It is excellent if plumbing equipment can be “tied” to a single collector – a pipe that leads to a sewage pit. And if the cottage is large and the water is supplied in opposite parts, then in the sewage scheme it is necessary to provide two cesspools. Well, in the case of a multi-storey cottage, you can’t do without installing risers.
In the sewerage project, it is necessary to take into account the number of plumbing equipment, the depth of the aquifers, the freezing of the soil. Ignoring the last factors can lead to freezing of the sewer system.
Installation and types of sewerage device
Installation of the sewer system, if it concerns a summer house under construction, begins when the foundation is built, walls are erected and the roof is equipped. It is also desirable to have interior partitions, but just do not rush with flooring.
An important step is the location of the cesspool. This place should be near the road, so that the dump truck can reach the pit, and the distance to the house should be 5-20 m.
The collector for fecal waste and wastewater is located on a slope, lies at a depth of not less than 0.7 m.
Important: at the exit from the house, the depth of the pipes is about 2 m.
When installing the sewer, the collector pipes are inserted one into one and sent down the bells. Both cast iron and plastic pipes can be used. But the joints are sealed with a solution of cement impregnated with felt.
The drain pipes must lie on pristine soil: a dense surface that does not sag, so the pipe will not bend and clogging will not form in it.
Important: for risers and collectors, pipes should be 10-20 cm in diameter, that is, larger than the diameter of pipelines coming from plumbing equipment.
Do-it-yourself sewerage cottages can be performed in different ways. I would like to name the most popular decisions on how to make a sewer in the country.
Sewer with absorbable well
This is the easiest and cheapest type of sewage system. For its device such materials are needed: reinforced concrete, brick. Such a well has no bottom; its walls are not sealed. Wastewater enters the well, large particles settle, water escapes through the ground. Due to the fact that the particles are not small, the walls and bottom of the well are quickly silted, the well’s performance deteriorates. The disadvantages of this scheme are complete – a constant unpleasant odor, as well as a high degree of probability of biochemical contamination of its and neighboring areas. So, we can conclude that such a local sewage system is a threat to the environment. The range of its application is narrow, mainly summer cottages, because such sewers are unproductive and short-lived.
Cesspool – Tested Type
The cesspool is a little better. In appearance it is a sealed container, and sewage flows into it. Such a container is made of reinforced concrete or plastic. The advantages of this type of sewerage are tightness, resistance to decay processes, and external influences (temperature differences also apply here). It is characterized by a long service life, but requires frequent pumping..
Sewerage in the cottage in two parts
This option is suitable for a comfortable summer stay at the cottage for 2-3 people. The principle of such a sewage system: the first part combines the discharge from the sink, bathtub, shower and discharges waste water without treatment into a ravine or roadside ditch. And through the second part, the sewer of the toilet leaves, which fall into the cumulative part, and then is pumped out by a cesspool machine.
Septic – the best option price / quality
This type of sewage system already has a certain degree of mechanical cleaning. The scheme of the septic tank is simple: sewage particles settle to the bottom, there they decompose, and in special soils (sandy, sandy loam) they are filtered. In some cases, the septic tank is supplemented by the installation of biofilters.
Such a sewer for giving reviews gets good, because it is mounted easily, and the septic tank does not exude caustic smells. And this is the optimal price / quality ratio (which is also important).
Priorities and minuses of the treatment plant
Summer sewerage using a sewage treatment plant is the most environmentally attractive method, but also the most expensive. In such a system, wastewater is purified by almost 100%, and in septic tanks only by 50-70%.
But only for tertiary treatment it is necessary to arrange filtering trenches and fields, and this is not always convenient and expensive. Wastewater in a treatment plant is treated in an absolutely natural way, close to natural biological processes.
Each owner of the cottage chooses the type of sewage system according to his desires and monetary capabilities. Nowadays without sewage systems it is difficult, and why put yourself in a certain framework, because you can make the sewer yourself and enjoy a comfortable life.