Since ancient times, humanity has been faced with the problem of wastewater treatment. The history of sewer installations begins with Ancient Rome. It was here that the first internal sewerage appeared, designed to divert the products of human life. These tanks, very reminiscent of modern septic tanks, had to be cleaned periodically. A significant difference – modern tanks are completely tight and prevent the pollution of groundwater and soil with harmful substances.
Ancient Roman sewage, cesspool, was distinguished by engineering complexity. During its construction, the terrain was taken into account, and for the rise of drains to an elevation, peculiar pumping stations. The width of the cesspool reached seven meters, which forced the workers who served it to move around it in a boat. Later, sewage appeared in all other countries of the world..
- Modern sewer system
- What is needed for the installation of sewage
- Installation of internal sewerage
- Installation of risers
- Installation of branch lines
Modern sewer system
In the modern world, the problem of wastewater treatment helps to solve the installation of a treatment plant system – a local sewage system, consisting of septic tanks and a filtration site. The latest generation purification systems allow not only cleaning the effluents to the required level, but also giving the resulting water a number of useful properties. Subsequently, it can be used for watering, washing tracks on a suburban area and other technical purposes..
According to SNiP, sewerage is an internal network of devices and pipelines responsible for the discharge of effluents from sanitary appliances and other technological equipment.
Internal sewage is designed to drain drains formed in the process of human life, in other words, his sanitary-hygienic and household activities. In most cases, this is a gravity-flowing system, that is, a system in which the movement of liquids occurs in water by gravity. In addition, it does not require the use of additional energy. To eliminate unpleasant odors, the system is equipped with a hydraulic shutter – siphon.
Tip: free access of air to the internal sewage system.
Any internal sewer in a private house consists of the following mandatory parts:
- capacity for receiving wastewater;
- installation for pumping or treating wastewater;
- branch lines.
In those country houses where the bathroom is at a noticeable distance from the riser, installation of a gravity-type internal sewage system is not always possible. In such cases, it is better to use a system consisting of a pump, a special tank, a circuit breaker and a pump, with the help of which sewage is discharged through a special pipe.
What is needed for the installation of sewage
First you should make sure that the pipes and fittings for domestic sewage are purchased in sufficient quantities. It is worth buying the necessary inverse filters and an air filter (if needed by the project).
What will be needed during installation:
- hacksaw for metal;
- a grinder with a special disc designed for cutting pipes;
- a pipe with a diameter of 50 mm for draining drains from plumbing and household appliances;
- a pipe with a diameter of 110 mm for drainage from bidets and toilets;
- pipe diameter 110 mm for riser.
Tip: all branch pipes are installed with a certain slope. For pipes with a diameter of 50 mm, the minimum slope is 0.025, normal – 0.035. For pipes with a diameter of 110 mm, the minimum slope is 0.012, normal – 0.02.
Installation of internal sewerage
Sewerage installation is a thorough and rather long process that requires compliance with a certain sequence, thoroughness and accuracy. The efficiency of the system in the future and the quality of its use depend on competent actions. Of course, to get a really good result, it is best to contact professionals, but do-it-yourself internal sewerage is also possible.
Before starting work, be sure to familiarize yourself with SNiP: Internal pipeline and sewage.
Installation and subsequent operation of the system requires full compliance with these rules. Domestic sewage must be installed in accordance with the approved design.
Tip: If the project is prepared independently, be sure to show it to a specialist so that no problems arise in the future. If the project is approved or, even better, compiled by a specially trained employee, then you can safely purchase all the necessary material.
Installation of risers
Installation of internal sewage should begin with the installation of risers. First, we make the markup according to a pre-developed plan and then proceed to the installation of the pipeline. When installing the riser, try to fully comply with its vertical position and avoid distortions and fractures at the joints of the pipes. The pipeline must be carried out by laying the pipes upside down, starting from the basement, while arranging revisions.
What is a revision? This is a fitting (tee), which provides free access to those places in the pipeline in which congestion may occur. As a rule, the audit is installed in every place where the pipeline forms an angle, at the beginning of each riser in the room and at the end of the internal sewer.
With a long linear pipeline, the fittings are located at a distance of no more than 30 meters from each other. If the riser is planned to be sewn up, then when installing the revision, you should take care of the inspection hatch, designed to serve the pipeline.
Each sewer riser necessarily ends with ventilation that goes to a ventilated attic or to the roof of the house in the form of an individual ventilation duct. For safety reasons, it is strictly forbidden to discharge the ventilation part of the sewer system into the chimney network of the building. Simultaneously with risers, horizontal branch lines are installed on all floors of the building..
Important: categorically not allowed the location of the sockets in the places of passage through various building structures, for example, floors.
Installation of branch lines
After installation of the risers, drainage lines from toilet bowls, bathtubs and other sanitary-hygienic equipment are connected to them. To do this, cast-iron or plastic pipes are used for internal sewage, while their diameter must completely match the diameter of the outputs of sanitary devices.
Tip: the length of the outlet pipe should be less than ten meters, and the angle of inclination should be such as not to impede the free movement of effluents to the riser. In this case, the bells are installed against the flow of wastewater.
When installing sewer pipelines, the machining of pipes and pipes is carried out with hand saws for metal or fine-tooth for wood. The cut is carried out perpendicular to the axial section of the pipe. The burrs resulting from sawing must be removed and chamfered with a large-mesh file. But fittings and turns are strictly forbidden to cut and process. If necessary, all elements of the sewage system are treated with special greases or a soap solution, the use of machine oil and its analogues is strictly prohibited.
If the installation of the internal sewer system is carried out taking into account the SNiP and all installation rules, then you will be able to achieve its long-term operation without unnecessary noise, frequent blockages, leading to exhausting cleaning, replacement of deformed pipes and other troubles.