How to build a toilet in the country
One of the most important and vital buildings in the country house, garden, rural manor or rural courtyard is the toilet. The need for it appears after several hours of stay on the site. Ideally, it is better to have two toilets: one is outdoor, the second is in the house. A street toilet is needed to walk into it during the day after gardening and not to carry dirt into the house. At night or in case of bad weather it is more convenient to go to a warm home toilet. There are several options for arranging street toilets: a backlash closet, a toilet with a cesspool, powder closet, a dry closet and a chemical toilet. When choosing a toilet for a summer residence, it is necessary to take into account the features of the terrain, the level of groundwater and sanitary standards.
- Rules for organizing a toilet in the country
- How to build a toilet in the country – instructions
- Sanitary facility with a cesspool
- Design features of powder-closet
- Backlash closet and its differences
- Dry closet – modernized building
- Chemical toilet for a summer residence
Rules for organizing a toilet in the country
- The distance from the toilet to the pond, well or water well, stream should be at least 25-30 m. If the site is located on a slope, the toilet must be placed above the well. Such precautions are necessary to prevent wastewater from entering drinking water..
- Cesspools need to be insulated reliably. This will prevent sewage from entering groundwater and nearby water bodies..
- When choosing a place for the toilet, it is important to consider the direction of the wind and the terrain, so that the smell from the latrine does not interfere not only with the owners, but also with the neighbors. It is necessary to keep the toilet clean, so that it does not become a source of an unpleasant “amber”.
- In the event that the groundwater lies at a depth of less than 2 m, then only a certain type of toilet is permitted at the cottage: powder-closet, dry closet and chemical toilet.
- If the groundwater is at a depth of more than 2.5 m, then you can build a backlash closet or toilet with a cesspool.
Equipping a toilet in the country with your own hands, first of all, you need to determine how deep the water is and what type of toilet you can build on the site.
How to build a toilet in the country – instructions
1. Determine the size of the desired toilet
The toilet should be at least 1 m deep and 1.5 m wide, otherwise it’s just inconvenient. Height not less than 2.2 m. Mark the plot.
2. Preparing a support for the toilet
It can be made from wooden or concrete posts. We process four asbestos-cement pipes from the outside with bituminous mastic and dig them to a depth of 50-70 cm, if you think this depth is insufficient, you can deepen it to 90 cm or 1 meter. We fill the pipes with a third of cement mortar. We insert support pillars inside the pipes and, if necessary, add cement mortar to fix them.
Important! There are wooden toilets for summer cottages, from slate, metal profiles and decking, as well as brick. Material for the frame and decoration is selected depending on the budget and wishes.
3. We make a frame
It can be made from metal corners by welding a box from them. There should be four load-bearing corners, a roof frame and a screed on the damage of the toilet seat. It is on these corners that we will attach a wooden toilet.
You can knock down the same frame from a wooden beam 50×60 mm.
4. We make the toilet body
On a wooden frame, you can stuff nails with boards, fitting them tightly to each other. But you can use any other material, for example, slate sheets, corrugated board or metal profile. We fasten them to the tree with screws. It is more convenient to mount slate or corrugated board to the frame of iron corners.
Two holes can be made in the rear wall of the case: one at the top for ventilation, it is taken up by a net, and the other at the bottom, so that it is more convenient to remove the container with sewage. The lower hole is made in the form of a door on hinges.
five. Make the roof
The roof is made of any roofing material you like: slate, roofing iron, wood. In the case of a wooden roof, it must be covered with roofing material so that moisture does not get inside. We make it shed, with a slope to the back wall.
6. We make a seat
We knock down the seat frame from wooden blocks. We install the front part of the frame on the floor, and attach the back to the corners or wooden blocks of the frame. The seat frame is upholstered with polished boards. Cut a hole, as in the toilet. Be sure to clear all corners of the burrs. Splashes in intimate places we do not need. If desired, the seat can be painted or varnished..
7. We hang the door
The door can be made wooden, or you can buy ready-made plastic. Above the door, between the roof and the beginning of the door, you must definitely make a hole for lighting the toilet. We hang the door on two hinges, we do the closing mechanism as you like. You can install a latch, latch or hook, or you can not too tricky lock. We install latches both inside the toilet and outside.
Inside the wall we hang a wooden box for filling. We install a bucket for toilet paper. Under a toilet seat we put a capacity of at least 20-30 liters for sewage.
If desired, a washbasin can be made in the toilet. If the size allows, we hang the washbasin and put a bucket for dirty water under it.
A photo showing a toilet in the country offers a variant of a wooden toilet with a metal profile roof; the window for light is not glazed.
Sanitary facility with a cesspool
A toilet with a cesspool is different from a powder closet with a stationary cesspool. Metabolism products fall into it, the liquid component partially evaporates, partially seeps into the soil, and the solid accumulates. The dense component is removed from the pit as it accumulates manually or using a cesspool machine..
Such a toilet can only be built in a place of deep groundwater.
Very often in villages they do not clean a cesspool. When it is full, the toilet is moved to a new place. They just bury the old pit. After a few years, the feces rot and can serve as an excellent fertilizer. In the old place, the toilet can be built in 4-5 years.
Instructions for building a toilet with a cesspool
1. We determine the place of construction: away from a well, stream or well.
2. Digging a cesspool
Depth of about 1.5 m. We make a bias towards the rear wall of the toilet. If further cleaning of the pit is implied, then we cover the bottom with gravel, and we strengthen the walls with boards. We process with a hot antiseptic. Another option: we stamp the bottom and walls with clay of at least 10 cm, better – 25 cm.
3. We make a support
The base on which the toilet will stand is knocked down from a bar 100×100 mm. Since the boards will lie in the ground, we treat them with an antiseptic or oil impregnation with molten bitumen. We fix the support in such a way that it under no circumstances slides into the pit.
Also, the base can be made of concrete slabs, for example, paving curbs. In this case, additional processing is not required..
4. Do the flooring over the pit
We cover it with reinforced concrete or wooden beams, leaving between them a space sufficient for convenient cleaning of the pit. We knock down the flooring from the boards, cover them with roofing material.
five. We make the hatch for cleaning
We install a hatch behind the toilet. Its lid is also treated with an antiseptic.
6. Doing the ventilation
Behind the back wall of the toilet we lay a pipe coming from the cesspool. You can use a conventional sewer pipe 100 mm in diameter. We fix it to the back wall of the restroom with iron clamps. The pipe should be 15 cm below the floor level. We raise it above the toilet roof by 1 m, cover with a cap on top so that water does not enter.
7. Install the toilet body on the beams
The case is carried out in exactly the same way as in powder closet. Its arrangement is also identical.
8. We carry out the blind area and arrange drainage channels
The below diagram of the toilet in the country (such as a backlash closet) shows the location of the necessary elements: hoods, toilet seats, manhole covers, washstands, concrete blind areas, clay locks.
Design features of powder-closet
The design of such a toilet is different from a traditional village toilet: there is no cesspool, and instead of it a waterproof container is installed, which is emptied as it fills. To prevent the reproduction of flies and remove the unpleasant odor, after each trip to the toilet, sewage is “dusted” with ash, peat or sawdust. This is where the name came from – powder-closet.
Building a toilet in a cottage like powder-closet has several advantages: it can be placed next to the house or even under the same roof with it, the construction technology is simpler, the groundwater is not polluted. The filled tank is emptied into a cesspool, the contents of which will subsequently turn into organic fertilizer for the garden.
Backlash closet and its differences
This type of toilets can only be built when it is understood that the cesspool is cleaned with the help of a cesspool machine and the pit is heated so that sewage does not freeze. Usually, a backlash is installed in or near the house. In essence, this is an improved rustic toilet with a cesspool.
The construction technology of a backlash closet has several differences:
- The surface of the cesspool is lined with concrete or brick, which will not allow sewage to be absorbed into the ground..
- A clay castle with a thickness of at least 25 cm is made along the height of the pit.
- The ventilation pipe from the pit is carried out through the hood of a stove or stove operating on coal, wood or other solid fuel. Pipes can be used ceramic or asbestos-cement. If the stove runs on gas fuel, then a low-power electric heater is used to warm the play channel. The extractor hood should be absolutely airtight, this will ensure its high-quality operation..
- The manhole cover over the cesspool is doubled. The top is made of metal or cast iron, and the bottom is wooden. The empty space between them must be filled with dry insulation, for example, sawdust or mineral wool.
Building a toilet in the country will take about a week.
Dry closet – modernized building
This type of toilets is a modernized powder-closet. The only difference is that peat or sawdust is poured into the powder closet, and special microorganisms are put into the dry closet. Installing a toilet in the country is a troublesome business, and buying a ready-made dry closet is easier. Moreover, they have different shapes, you can buy a small one and put it in the house. Cleaning such a toilet is much more convenient than in powder closet. The only drawback: constantly need to buy microorganisms for cleaning. But sewage turns into organic fertilizer, which is non-toxic and can be used right there on beds.
Chemical toilet for a summer residence
Such a toilet differs from a dry closet only by a cleaner: it is not organic, but chemical. Therefore, the resulting mass cannot be used as fertilizer. Moreover, it is undesirable to pour it into a compost pit.
Each of the described types of toilets has its advantages and disadvantages. For some, there are construction restrictions. The final decision rests with personal wishes and financial opportunities..