In the old days, many diseases were the result not so much of poorly developed medicine as the lack of even the most minimal knowledge about the importance of sanitation and hygiene. The first step towards civilization was the installation of sewage on the streets of the city. Nobody wants to return to an unenlightened and foul-smelling past, so even in the most remote settlements people think about arranging their life at the proper level. Consider the most affordable option financially, namely, how to install a cesspool with your own hands.
- Preparatory work
- Assembly and installation of storage tanks made of concrete rings (two options)
- The first option is a cesspool of concrete rings
- The second option is a cesspool of concrete rings
Before proceeding to resolve the issue of how to make a cesspool, it is necessary to perform a number of preliminary calculations and measurements. First, decide which material the storage tank will be made of. The most popular are concrete and plastic. In addition, there are also certain rules for the placement of this building.
Firstly, the cesspool at the cottage or at the house adjoining site should be located at a distance of at least 5 m from the residential building. Secondly, if there are wells and other similar structures on the territory, then the tank should be located at least 30 m from them. Thirdly, in the presence of high-lying groundwater, a surface treatment plant will be required, rather than a standard underground installation. Fourthly, when installing a model that requires systematic pumping, it is necessary to equip the car’s free access to it. Fifth, for efficient passage through wastewater pipes, a storage tank should be positioned so that the pipeline passes to it along a straight path or with a minimum number of turns.
Having selected a specific cesspool device, it should be calculated at what height the pipeline inlet will be located in the tank. Then the trench bursts out under the pipes and the foundation pit under the drive. Note that with underground passage of pipes, the required depth of their laying is 1 m (20 cm will go to a gravel and sand pillow). This is done so that during the onset of frost the water inside does not freeze, thereby violating the integrity of the pipes and stopping the sewage. With a terrestrial location, the problem of freezing the pipeline is also acute. A partial solution may be the surface covering of pipes with insulating materials.
Assembly and installation of storage tanks made of concrete rings (two options)
The design of this material can be performed in two ways. Thanks to the first, we get a structure that requires a systematic pumping of the contents, thanks to the second – a structure that does not need pumping at all.
The first option is a cesspool of concrete rings
The construction of the cesspool begins, both the first and second options, with the same manipulations. The step-by-step process looks like this.
- We tear out the pit under the tank. It is desirable that its walls are located at a distance of 1 m from it (such a distance will provide us with free access to the structure from all sides).
- The bottom should be well aligned. The most suitable way – leveling with cement screed.
- The first part of the future storage tank is installed on the leveled surface – a concrete ring with a bottom and supporting projections on the upper part (diameter – 1-2 m).
- Next, the second part is installed – a concrete ring with supporting projections for the manhole cover on the upper part (diameter – 0.7-0.8 m). As a sealant we use rubber (pitched or chamber).
- We punch two holes in the lower ring with a puncher: under the air intake and under the inlet for sewage. We install a pipe for the exit of gases, and also connect the sewer.
- Joints of the compound are sealed with a solution. After it has completely dried, the entire surface of the structure is treated with liquid glass..
The second option is a cesspool of concrete rings
This cesspool of concrete rings generally does not require pumping out the contents. It consists of two tanks, the first of which is the primary wastewater treatment, and the second is the final. At the exit we get water that does not harm the environment and can be discharged into the nearest body of water.
Installation of the first tank was discussed above. The only clarification: in the fifth paragraph, instead of two holes, three are punched. A third opening is necessary for the contents to exit into the second treatment tank. This hole is located 25 cm below the entrance. Above all, there is a hole for the air intake.
The whole process of assembling the second tank is as follows.
- The foundation pit breaks out 50 cm wider than the diameter of the tank.
- At the bottom of it we create a gravel pillow 20 cm thick.
- The first ring is installed on it (dimensions are similar to the first option) without a bottom.
- In the lower part of the first ring, two outlet holes are drilled from two sides. In the upper part there is a hole for water inlet and under the air intake.
- The second element with the same seal is installed.
- The joints are coated with a solution (liquid glass in this case is not necessary).
- The inner ring is half filled with gravel and another quarter with a stone chipper.
- Outside, the lower ring is covered with gravel for three quarters. After which it is finally filled with earth.
Rules for installing a storage tank made of plastic
Mounting a cesspool of plastic is much easier than concrete. But it has two significant drawbacks: it cannot be hidden underground and it is always presented only as a drive (requires pumping).
- The walls of a dug pit should be at least 30 cm from the surface of the tank.
- The tank is installed only on a level surface (either a sand cushion or a concrete screed).
- The tank must be equipped with additional elements: a ventilation pipe and a beacon float (signals the tank is full).
- After installing the tank on the prepared site, it is necessary to fix it. The tank is filled with clean water (height not more than 15 cm) and is attached to the supporting platform from the outside with a solution (cement and sand).
- No loads should be applied to the surface of the tank. It is strictly forbidden to fill it with earth.
Now that you know how to make a cesspool, you can safely conclude that these works are not so complicated. If you generously do not flatter the work with carelessness and haste, then in the end you can get a full-fledged sewer system that will last you for many years.