What are the stairs to the second floor – an overview of design options

What are the stairs to the second floor

In modern country houses, two-level apartments or offices, private hotels and restaurants, luxurious stairs to the second floor almost always become the most spectacular element around which the entire interior is built. At the same time, this is a serious engineering structure designed to provide a comfortable and safe passage for residents or guests of the premises to the second floor.


  • Types and criteria for choosing stairs to the second floor
  • Marching stairs – ergonomics in action
  • Spiral staircase – for small rooms
  • Combined staircase – balance in all aspects
  • Materials and design of interior stairs
    • Wood Options
    • Features of stone stairs
    • Metal stairs – a modern solution
    • Photos of interesting solutions in interiors of different styles
    • Rules and norms of design during construction
      • Supporting structures
      • We build the steps correctly
      • Ladder angle
      • Types and criteria for choosing stairs to the second floor

        The most unusual at first glance, the staircase to the second floor can belong to one of three types:

        • marching stairs;
        • spiral staircases;
        • combined stairs – curved, curved, combining the elements of the first two types.

        Despite the importance of the aesthetic role of the stairs in the interior, the configuration of this architectural design is chosen based on the free space of the room, which can be allocated for its installation.

        Unfortunately, a staircase from a glossy magazine that is not always liked can be installed in a particular room of a house without losing ergonomics.

        Marching stairs – ergonomics in action

        The most common and easy to manufacture staircase construction, which can consist of one or more marches – straight fragments with steps. From the point of view of ergonomics, one flight of stairs should not contain more than 16 steps of comfortable width and height. Single-flight staircases are suitable for small country houses, if the area and height of the room allow fulfilling this requirement, or as a connecting element between two functional zones of one room located at different levels.

        In spacious and high rooms for climbing to the second floor, marching stairs are built with intermediate platforms or with a swivel element from the running steps. Depending on the geometric shape in plan, such staircases are either -shaped or U-shaped.

        Two-march U-shaped wooden staircase on Kosoura

        The two-march U-shaped wooden staircase on the skewers is respectable and reliable, but takes up a lot of space indoors

        The L-shaped staircase is two flights of stairs located at two adjacent walls of the room at an angle of 90 °, united by a platform or rotary steps. The option is good for square halls or rooms, when furniture, storage systems are located near the walls under the stairs, and the center of the room is left free to enter other areas of the house.

        L-shaped two-flight staircase

        L-shaped two-flight staircase allows you to save the area of ​​a not very large room, and steps without a riser do not block the natural light from the window

        Owners of very spacious halls and living rooms in country mansions, hotels, and representative offices can afford a U-shaped flight of stairs. In this case, the flights of stairs are located at an angle of 180 ° relative to each other, and are usually connected by a platform or less often by a group of running steps.

        Spiral staircase – for small rooms

        The design is a support rod, around which steps rise up in a spiral. From the point of view of ergonomics, the spiral staircase to the second floor is uncomfortable and unsafe, but it has a right to exist when no other staircase fits into a small room. The area of ​​a classical spiral staircase rarely exceeds 1 sq.m. in plan, it can be built anywhere in the room, even in the center, and its decorative appearance will give the interior a special charm and even mystery.

        Combined staircase – balance in all aspects

        Usually this is a curved arc-shaped architectural structure, combining elements of marching and spiral staircases that rise upward, smoothly bending at different angles.

        Combined staircase on Kosoura

        The combined staircase on the kosoura combines the structural elements of the marching and helical. Smooth lines make her graceful and graceful

        The construction of combined exclusive staircases is most often dictated not so much by constructive relevance as by the ambitions of the designer or owner of the house. Nevertheless, the most beautiful stairs to the second floor more often than other types are combined.

        Materials and design of interior stairs

        For the construction of interior interior stairs are traditionally used:

        • wood
        • a rock
        •  metal

        Each of these materials is good both on its own and in combination with each other. Thanks to modern technologies in staircase construction, glass and new finishing materials are increasingly appearing.

        Wood Options

        Wood is most popular in interior staircase construction: living natural material is easily processed, in natural or painted form fits perfectly into the interior of any style, but, most importantly, it creates a special atmosphere of warmth and comfort in the house.

        A single-flighted interfloor staircase made of pine is the best budget solution for a small summer residence, and in a respectable mansion, a complex staircase made of solid and exotic woods often serves as a central element in the interior of a living room or hall. Particularly spectacular are the wooden stairs to the second floor, the decoration of which combines several types of wood.

        Wooden staircases are almost free from shortcomings, except for the need for periodic updating of the paintwork and creaking of steps, which not all craftsmen manage to avoid.

        Features of stone stairs

        Natural or artificial stone in such stairs is used only for cladding.

        The supporting structures of a wide variety of forms, from simple marching to curvilinear and even screw, are mounted from ready-made concrete blocks or are cast in a specially designed formwork. The main advantages of stone stairs are stability, durability and fire safety..

        Metal stairs – a modern solution

        Metal stairs to the second floor are universal, strong and durable, in which metal can serve both as a material for the supporting structure and as an independent element of the interior. The specular sheen of stainless steel or chrome handrails does not seem soulless and cold in trendy minimalist interiors.. Metal staircase with wooden steps and wrought iron fencing, it seems light and airy, organically blending into any classic interior. The ductility of the metal allows you to give the frame any shape, and you can sheathe it with any finishing material – wood, stone, etc..

        Photos of interesting solutions in interiors of different styles

        Regardless of what material is used for the construction of the supporting frame, the design of the stairs to the second floor is created using various materials. Take a look from a slightly different angle on the stairs to the second floor – photos of interesting design decisions will change your ideas about familiar materials:

        Wooden staircase with glass and metal - classic

        The wooden staircase, recognized as the queen of the classic interior, with glass and metal fences looks modern and rejuvenated.

        Staircase with elegant wrought iron balustrade - view

        A staircase with an elegant wrought iron balustrade will become an exquisite decoration of the interior in the styles of the Mediterranean and Provence

        Marble concrete staircase

        The grandiose concrete staircase, lined with snow-white natural or artificial marble, against the background of white walls seems weightless

        Mosaic in the decoration of a wooden staircase

        The mosaic in the staircase decoration sounds oriental melody in the interior in Indian, Arabic, Moroccan styles

        Metal staircase with tempered glass steps

        The metal staircase with tempered glass steps seems to dissolve in the interior in a hi-tech style and fills the space with air and light

        Rules and norms of design during construction

        Regardless of the decorative design and practical function, any staircase is an engineering structure consisting of a number of structural elements common to all types of products. In order to properly build a staircase to the second floor, it is necessary according to building standards to calculate or select the appropriate supporting structure, angle of elevation, height and width of steps.

        Supporting structures

        The supporting structure of the staircase, ensuring its stability and safety, is based on supporting elements – braids, bowstrings or rails, and also racks.

        Kosour is an integral beam with ledges on which steps are mounted on top.

        Bowstring – support beam supporting the steps on the side and bottom.

        Bolts – from German the word translates as “pin, pin”, and the supporting element is a bolted connection for attaching steps directly to the wall.

        The staircase on the stairs is durable and concise.

        Durable and concise staircase – a great design solution for a small room in a minimalist style.

        Rack – central vertical support of a spiral staircase.

        In traditional interiors, respectable staircases on braids or bowstrings or classic spiral staircases usually prevail. Innovative design projects of stairs to the second floor can combine two supporting elements in one product: for example, steps without risers can be attached to the wall with bolts, and from the outer edge they are supported by a bowstring – a constructive solution for straight and curved transparent stairs in the loft, high-tech styles minimalism.

        Sometimes the supporting structure of the stairs is chosen depending on the material used. Kosoura are ideal for wooden marching stairs, and supporting structures for spiral and curved stairs are easier to make of metal.

        We build the steps correctly

        The main functional structural element of all stairs. In order to make climbing stairs comfortable, it is important to correctly observe the ratio of the depth of the tread to the height of the step. A step is called the horizontal part of a step, and height, that is, the distance between two nearby steps, is a riser. The riser bar may not be available on some staircases..

        Climbing stairs is considered to be comfortable, which does not require artificially increasing or decreasing the step length or the level of leg lift. The staircase designers calculated the options for the optimal ratios of the depth of the tread and the height of the step, which can be used in the construction of any stair groups: 16:30 cm; 17:29 cm; 18:28 cm and 19:29 cm. The last 19:29 ratio, corresponding to the 45th shoe size, is considered ideal.

        Ladder angle

        The ergonomics and comfort, as well as the possibility of using one or another ratio of the depth of the tread and the height of the steps, depend on the angle of the stairs. Based on the centuries-old experience of staircase construction, the most safe and comfortable staircase is considered to be a slope relative to the horizontal of 30-40 °.

        Wooden staircase on bowstrings

        Wooden ladder on bowstrings with an angle of inclination of 35-40 degrees – time-tested engineering design that takes into account the biomechanics of a comfortable movement of a person up and down

        True, such a staircase requires a lot of space. Owners of not too spacious rooms will have to draw a drawing of a staircase to the second floor and, armed with school knowledge of the Pythagorean theorem, calculate the angle of inclination of a particular staircase in a specific space.

        Important! A straight staircase with a slope of 40-50 ° is unsafe and extremely inconvenient for frequent use. Perhaps you should choose a more comfortable combined design..

        Spiral modular staircase - as art

        A spiral modular staircase can be assembled from ready-made modules like a child’s designer in just 3-4 hours

        If you do not have time or desire to delve into the calculations and rules for designing ladder structures, ergonomic modular stairs to the second, made taking into account all the requirements and standards, is your option. Ready-made modular staircases, straight, curved, screw, made of wood or metal, can be selected for any interior style and space, but their main advantage is a simple assembly for 3-4 hours like a child’s designer. At the same time, the modules of such stairs during assembly can be adjusted in height and width, reaching the optimum dimensions for the room. Each modular ladder module can support up to 200 kg.

        We hope that our advice will help you choose the optimal design, design and method of execution of the most beautiful and comfortable stairs, which will no doubt become a spectacular decoration of your home.


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