Often, for the purpose of a difficult to explain economy, future owners of suburban property hire different performers. The house is being built by one contractor, and the interior design is entrusted to a completely different company. As a result, the design of stairs must be “adapted” to the given conditions, especially since often these designs are drawn by the architect only abstractly.
Knowing how stairs are designed is also necessary for those who are independently building a country house. Indeed, despite the apparent simplicity, the design designed for comfortable safe movement cannot be attributed to the list of protozoa.
- What type of stairs to choose?
- Design Requirements
- We choose a comfortable and safe width
- Steepness or simpler – stairs slope
- Calculations of the dimensions of the stage
- Imaginary middle line
- Calculation of the passage height
What type of stairs to choose?
The choice of material for the stairs determines the capital of the house and the degree of fire resistance of the structure. The shape allocated for the construction of a staircase of space, the height of the ceilings, and the architectural style influence the choice of shape. The most comfortable, providing the safest lift and movement in the opposite direction is recognized by a gentle design with one march and 15 steps.
However, the limited space often forces one to look for alternative compact options in the area, to install complex spiral staircases: their drawings with run-down steps can be “entered” into almost any project. The construction with two marches will take up more space than the screw version, but less than a simple gentle analogue. In his project there can be both cross-country steps and a platform between marches.
If it is planned to design and manufacture the stairs completely independently, then it is advisable to pay close attention to wood as a building material. It is easier to process, minor errors can be fixed and alterations will not be unnecessarily expensive. Unlike monolithic structures poured from concrete, all the components of the future structure do not need to be done at the facility. It is assembled from individual elements, like a metal staircase: a drawing can be designed for the construction of any of the existing types (screw, two-flight, flat, U-shaped, semicircular, etc.).
The design work is preceded by measurements, it is necessary to accurately measure the area in the plan, the dimensions of the opening, the height from the lower floor to the ceiling and the power of the upper floor with the thickness of the floor covering. If measurements are carried out with only rough floors on both floors, the estimated height of the future floor must be taken into account.
If the opening is not wide enough, you will have to increase the hole, cut through concrete or saw off excess wood beams.
Attention. There should not be any communications in the stairwells..
To make a competent drawing of the stairs to the second floor, you will need an accurate plan of the room on the first. Niches, ledges, windows and doors should be clearly indicated on it, if they adjoin the stairs. Measurements of doors are carried out on platbands, for the exact designation of the window, it will also require its location relative to the floor and the dimensions of the windowsill.
Characteristics required for further calculations:
- march width;
- number of steps.
All of these parameters are dependent on each other, you can not just assign any of them arbitrarily.
We choose a comfortable and safe width
When moving up the stairs in any direction, users should not experience discomfort with a feeling of too narrow space and danger. By width is meant the distance between the two handrails or the distance between the handrail and the enclosing wall. Whether spiral staircases or elementary single-march structures are being designed, equivalent building standards are used to determine this parameter:
- 125 cm laid in the project if you want to achieve increased comfort;
- 110 cm, if the structure is located between two walls;
- 90 cm, if the structure has two fences or adjoins one side to the wall;
- 80 cm with one guard are permissible if it is not intended to use a ladder to carry bulky items;
- 70 cm are appropriate in garden houses and in domestic premises.
You should know that under spiral staircases, drawings should be made taking into account the minimum width of 110 cm, the optimal size is 140 cm. The width of the screw structures is the distance from the edge of the step to the supporting central pillar. If the flights of stairs are directed towards each other, there must be a distance of at least 10 cm between them.
Steepness or simpler – stairs slope
The parameter is interconnected with the dimensions of the steps and with the area of the designed structure. Steep stairs take up little space, but do not differ in comfort, gentle options are convenient, but the usable area will take up a lot. Those who want to combine comfort and safety of movement with a minimum loss of area choose two-marching types, they themselves perform or order a drawing of a staircase with running steps or a design project with a landing.
- Instead of stairs with a slope of 23? you can arrange a gentle ramp.
- The most comfortable slope over 23 ?, less than 37?.
- Slope at 45? translates the structure into the category of structures, which you can descend only by turning towards the stairs.
Over 50? the slope can only be at the ladder.
Calculations of the dimensions of the stage
The most convenient for moving in both directions along the stairs is the ratio equal to the sum of the width of the tread (g) with the riser multiplied by two height (h).
g + 2 h = from 62 to 64 cm (the standard step of an adult on a straight path)
Any variations with step heights and widths must meet this requirement. Depending on the steepness of the future structure and personal preferences, the size of the steps is calculated.
It is convenient to raise the leg to a height of not more than 32 cm, but consider the maximum comfortable step height 15 cm. Doing risers above 17 cm is not recommended. If you are designing wooden stairs, concrete or metal structures with two or more marches, you should remember that it is most convenient that there are 10-15 steps in one march.
Depending on the purpose of the stairs, the width of the tread is selected. Its minimum is 20 cm, the standard is 32 cm, the recommended limit is 40 cm. An overhang of the tread above the riser is permissible if the dimensions of the structure do not allow making a sufficiently wide tread. When designing runaway steps, it should be noted that there should not be less than 10 cm of their width in the narrow part.
Note. All steps of the stairs should be congruent: with equal width and height. Maximum deviation 0.5 cm.
The number of treads in marching stairs with platforms is always one unit less than the number of risers, since one of the treads is located on the site.
Imaginary middle line
The designer of the staircase with a direct march traditionally paves it in the middle. But in curved structures, the midline of the marches is mentally drawn at 0.4-0.5 m from the rack or the edge of the span. The width of the running steps along the midline should be equivalent to the width of the steps of simple straight flights.
Calculation of the passage height
Clearance – a characteristic that you should pay attention to if an independent designer is interested in providing comfort.
It is noticed that with a passage height exceeding the growth of a person walking up the stairs by 5 cm, he will instinctively bend down and draw in his head. Therefore, the height from 1.9 m to 2.0 m is recognized as the clearance standard. The height of the passage along the entire length of the stairs should be equivalent.
Having dealt with the nuances of design, everyone who wants to provide their home with a reliable, convenient design will cope with the task of calculating and building stairs. Information about the design features will help owners of suburban mansions, entrusting the construction of the stairs to third-party performers, correctly monitor the implementation.