DIY concrete staircase
A staircase is a complex architectural structure, the list of requirements for which includes reliability, safety, aesthetics and comfort. The owners of the houses would like it to serve as long as possible and not require endless repairs. Therefore, among other materials used in the manufacture of stairs, most often use artificial stone – concrete. In terms of strength, artistic expressiveness, and operational longevity, there are no rivals for him yet, and the simplest concrete staircase is constructed with his own hands without any problems.
- Why concrete stairs are better?
- Choosing the optimal design
- Making a plan for future work
- Standard sizes
- Base for construction
Why concrete stairs are better?
The material used in the manufacture perfectly tolerates all the hardships of intensive operation, concrete stairs in private houses are arranged outdoors and indoors.
They are considered the best option for the construction of a central entrance group and to ensure movement to the basement or attic, they are used in landscape design. Besides:
- monolithic design does not have elements shaky from dynamic loading;
- users are not threatened with negative creaking sounds, even if the concrete stairs were finished with wood;
- the embodiment of any ideas of architects is possible from elementary marching, more complex screw structures to complex composite configurations;
- minimal risk of fire;
- a lot of options for facing, compatibility and compatibility with any finishing and building materials.
The construction can be entirely monolithic or solid can only be skewers, on which concrete steps for stairs without risers are hoisted after solidification of these frame elements. In the second case, the design is lighter, both in the technical and in the decorative sense, but installing it above the recreation area is not desirable due to the presence of gaps.
There is also a technical nuance: concrete stairs to the second floor, in the basement, in the attic, on the veranda can only be made at the facility. The work is carried out during the construction process and, unlike wooden counterparts, they cannot be installed after the completion of the interior decoration.
Choosing the optimal design
The whole process of erecting a staircase made of concrete is divided into three stages, these are:
- formwork assembly – standard work for creating any concrete and reinforced concrete structures;
- installation and knitting of fittings;
- directly pouring concrete stairs.
The most difficult and time-consuming stage is the assembly of formwork. If it is planned to build a florid configuration, without the slightest doubt it will need to be entrusted to professionals. Formwork for stairs of non-standard geometry without significant experience in this matter is impossible to do.
The easiest way is to fill a single-flight staircase, placing it between two walls. Then the side elements of the formwork are not required, it is enough to draw a contour on the walls. The design of an elementary single-flight staircase can be varied with an interesting round shape of the lower step.
More difficult to implement will be a single-march version with only one side resting on the wall, since it will be necessary to make the end element of the formwork and install supports to support it. It will be much more difficult to fill in the structure with two sides not adjacent to the walls, to build a two-marching version with downhill steps or with a landing. However, in general, simple geometry can be dealt with if desired, and the original finish of the concrete stairs with ceramics, wooden, nickel-plated, forged parts will make it unique.
Making a plan for future work
Like any architectural and functional construction, a staircase requires preliminary design and calculations. A simple project must be done at least in the format of a sketch, hand-drawn.
If you want to figure out how to make a concrete staircase, you should know that:
- the width dictated by DIN 18065 and domestic SNiP should be 0.8-0.9 m;
- step height standard 17 cm;
- the height of the structure must take into account the power of the upper floor, including the height of the coated floor cake;
- step width providing a comfortable step, 29-30 cm;
- 30? is considered a convenient angle for tilting, but if necessary, reduce the area of the structure, the angle can reach 45?.
Too steep stairs will increase the likelihood of injury. Technological limit of 45? also undesirable due to the inconvenience of moving. If you want to reduce the area in the plan, it is better to prefer the manufacture of concrete stairs with two or more spans or to install a screw structure.
Important. The project must take into account the presence of fences, the installation of embedded parts for it should be provided for in the design.
Base for construction
Depending on the complexity, width and span, the weight of the concrete stairs will be from 1.5 to 2.5 tons. Therefore, before erection, it is necessary to think over the issues of the foundation device, the most common version of which are reinforced concrete beams and foundations. If the screed on the ground serves as the basis, the soil under it must be compacted and calculated so that the weight of the monolithic structure does not press on it with a force exceeding 1 kg / cm ?. It should be remembered that the decoration of the steps of a concrete staircase, for example, with natural stone, will significantly increase its weight. If the load exceeds the permissible value, it is better to sheathe wood.
Important. A monolithic staircase made of concrete is not recommended to be supported on a screed with thermal insulation made of polystyrene. The section under the stairs will need to be dismantled, then fill in a special foundation.
Phased construction of concrete stairs
At the initial stage of formwork assembly, the following are used:
- waterproof plywood (18-20 mm in a section) and / or edged board (3 cm);
- building timber with a cross section up to 10 × 10 cm for racks and supports;
- for forming curved surfaces plywood up to 9 mm or narrow edged board.
There should be no gaps or gaps in the formwork. Connections are made using phosphated screws, you can install steel corners at the ends. After concrete hardening, all formwork elements can be removed without problems..
In the finished formwork along the march, steel bars are laid and connected by reinforcing bars with transverse ties. Then, wooden plugs are installed under the embedded parts intended for the installation of the fence. Then pour concrete, the brand of which should be no lower in strength than B-15. You need to fill the whole march, starting from the lowest level.
How can I finish a concrete staircase?
In order to reduce the load on the base, the sheathing of a concrete staircase with wood is often preferred. Steps, balustrades and handrails can be made of wood. Nickel-plated fencing details, forged lattices, specific decor on the supporting posts are appropriate.
Concrete is wonderfully in harmony with any material, therefore, in terms of finish, there are practically no restrictions.
All elements can be completely lined with wood or tiled with risers or partially cover only the upper part.
A variety of special effects are acceptable, for example, the device of the original LED lighting, the use of plastic and glass. Moreover, the facing of the concrete staircase with wood can be perfectly combined with any of the proposed options..
Of course, the production of a monolithic concrete structure must be started, carefully prepared for work. For beginners in the field of construction, you first need to find out all the nuances of design and correctly calculate everything. After familiarizing yourself with the technological rules, pouring and finishing a staircase made of concrete will not be intimidating by excessive complexity, but it will require scrupulousness and accuracy. Performers who are not too confident in their abilities can be preliminarily trained on the device of the stairs on the site. Surely this valuable experience will help them in the future..