Water supply

Water pumps for cottages and homes: installation, repair and circuit home-made unit

Water pumps for summer house and home

Water is the main natural wealth. But not everywhere, and not always, people can connect to the centralized water supply and use this benefit. In such situations, it is necessary to build an autonomous water supply, the functionality of which requires pumps. These devices are designed to transport fluid under pressure. They are widespread, and their diversity is pleasantly surprising and at the same time puzzling. Especially pumps are needed for summer residents and residents of the private sector. So, for example, a water pump for giving is very popular, which pumps water from deep wells and nearby open ponds for watering gardens, because in this way you can avoid hours of physical labor.


  • Types and features of pumping equipment
  • Vortex Pump: Cons and Pros
  • Electromagnetic (vibration) pump
  • Reliable and simple centrifugal pump
  • Hand water pumps
  • Which pump to choose? How to make a water pump yourself
  • Pump repair: causes, symptoms
  • Types and features of pumping equipment

    Depending on the conditions under which it will be operated, the pump can be surface or submersible. In the presence of centralized water supply, high pressure water pumps are often used, which are connected to the water supply to create a jet of high pressure water.

    Surface pump layout

    Surface pump layout

    All water pumps for a house or cottage are arranged according to one general principle..

    In the process, the pump creates a vacuum inside itself, as a result of which the liquid from the reservoir is drawn into the vacuum chamber, after which it is pushed out with force and sent through the pipe to its destination. Depending on the method of creating a vacuum, the following principles of operation of the pumps are distinguished:

    Vortex Pump: Cons and Pros

    The operation of these pumps is based on the rotation of the vortex wheel – a flat disk with blades radially located on its periphery. During the rotation of the wheel, water flows into the cavity inside the housing and is pushed out from there by rotation of the blades.

    Submersible pump layout

    Installation diagram of a submersible pump


    • The pump mechanism is very “not like” suspended particles that may be in the water.

    Therefore, such pumps should be used more carefully when pumping water from contaminated water..


    • High suction ability and resistance to air bubbles found in the “supply” pipe.

    Electromagnetic (vibration) pump

    The main element is an electromagnet. During the supply of alternating voltage electromagnet to the windings, it attracts the armature to itself, and when the polarity is changed, the armature returns to its previous position.

    Vibration pump - block diagram

    Vibration pump design

    Thus, within one second, a hundred oscillations of the armature occur. The piston connected to the armature vibrates as much. Since water is an elastic medium, vibrations begin due to vibrations and its excesses are pushed into the discharge pipe through the valve.


    • Lack of rotating elements and electric motor.

    Reliable and simple centrifugal pump

    In such a pump, under the influence of the impeller blades on water, a centrifugal force arises, which creates fluid motion and the necessary pressure.

    Centrifugal pump

    Centrifugal pump – the epitome of simplicity and reliability

    Such household water pumps produce both submersible and surface types. Centrifugal water pump is released with vertical and horizontal placement of the working shaft.

    Hand water pumps

    Having invested a minimum of funds, you can still provide your summer cottage or garden with water. If the need for water on the site is small or there is no electricity, then you can use a manual water pump.

    Such water pumps for summer cottages are mainly used by people who have low incomes and in areas where electricity is supplied intermittently or not at all. In order to bring devices of this type into action, only brute human power is needed. Summer residents use water pumps to water their sites.

    Hand pump

    Hand pump – a very common and versatile option

    The most common among these models is a piston pump. The fluid moves under the action of the suction piston and the pressure difference in the cylinder. From 0.5 to 2 liters is supplied per cycle. Depth with which it is possible to pump water – up to twenty meters.

    The second type is a vane pump. He has special blades that drive the handle. It is more compact than a piston, but the flow rate is lower – up to 1.5 liters per cycle. But the pumping depth is the same – up to twenty meters.

    Which pump to choose?

    Summarizing all of the above, we note that the choice of the pump depends entirely on the exact conditions under which this device will work. The surface pump to choose or submersible is determined by the depth of groundwater. Based on the purity of the pumped liquid, a vortex or vibration pump is selected. If there is chronically low pressure in the water supply system, then installing a high pressure water pump there does not make sense, a portable pump is quite enough. Also, when working, it is very important to remember that the electric water pump directly interacts with water. In most cases, the pumps should have reliable casing grounding and three-pole grounding plugs.

    How to make a water pump yourself

    If desired, you can make a water pump with your own hands. It turns out that for the manufacture of a simple pump, great efforts are not needed. A schematic representation of such a device is shown in the figure. This simplest pump can pump water from nearby sources. To make it, you will need

    • Corrugated pipe
    • Bracket
    • Valve sleeve

    The pipe is suspended from the bracket, and the other end is attached to a floating log. On both sides of the pipe is closed with bushings with valves. Even small wave motions will trigger the harmonica pipe. The more often compression and expansion will occur, the better this homemade pump will work. Note that with wind gusts of only 2 m / s, wave-like movements begin in the river, which pump the pump and help it pump up to twenty-five tons of water per day.

    DIY water pump

    Hand-made pump device

    If the corrugated pipe is made of brass, the weight of the log should not be less than sixty kilograms. In order for such a home-made pump to work more than one day, a limiter in the form of a ring is attached to the lift, through which a bolt is fixed. A stop with a bolt holds the lift in its original position and allows it to turn only in a horizontal plane. The bushings are screwed into the tips and soldered into the corrugated pipe. A homemade pump uses rubber valves. When the log is in the correct position, it pulls the pipe and remains in a strictly perpendicular direction.

    Pump repair: causes, symptoms

    Modern features of electric networks and water supply networks, as well as difficult operating conditions lead to various malfunctions of pumping equipment, manifested in the following:

    • The non-calculated vibrations of the pump unit;
    • Increasing noise;
    • Increase in working currents;
    • Pressure pulsations;
    • Pressure drop;
    • Leakage between flanges and pump shaft.

    If at least one of the above signs is manifested, then it is necessary to repair the water pump.

    Among the main reasons for the failure of water pumps are the following:

    • Errors during installation work of the unit;
    • Malfunctions of the electrical circuit of the installation;
    • Malfunctions of the pump motor;
    • Pump operation in modes that are different from regulated.

    Since many reasons can lead to a pump malfunction, diagnostics should be carried out by qualified specialists using a number of instruments and devices.


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