How to make a monolithic foundation with your own hands
The foundation for the future home is a very important stage in the entire construction process. Planning to lay monolithic do it yourself foundation, all preparatory work must be carried out in advance. These include not only the registration of the land in the property, but also the mandatory study of soil at the construction site. The type of foundation will be determined depending on the properties of the soil, the severity of the planned construction and the means available to the developer.
- Monolithic foundation – getting ready for construction
- Tape type of monolithic foundation, construction technology
- Construction of a monolithic foundation of a tiled type
A monolithic foundation is a type of foundation that is optimal for erecting in the territories of close lying groundwater, as well as subsidence and heaving soils. It also acts as a concrete pillow, protecting the basement and basement, as well as the ground floor from the negative effects of moisture..
The monolithic foundation is rightfully considered one of the most durable and reliable. The advantages that the monolithic foundation has include:
- lack of damage when interacting with moisture;
- the ability to withstand heavy loads;
- speed of construction;
- low cost.
In construction, there are two types of bookmarks of monolithic foundations:
- Tape monolithic foundation
- Foundation monolithic slab
Monolithic foundation – getting ready for construction
For independent construction of a monolithic foundation, it is necessary to take care of the availability of tools and appropriate construction equipment in advance. You will need:
- several pieces of bayonet or shovels;
- cord for marking;
- building level;
- ribbed reinforcement for reinforcement, with a diameter of 10-14 mm;
- hook and wire for knitting reinforcement;
- cement, sand and gravel;
- formwork material;
- carpentry tools for the construction of formwork;
- construction machinery.
Tape type of monolithic foundation, construction technology
The strip foundation is a closed tape with a larger bearing surface, which is suitable for the construction of all types of houses – from concrete, wood, stone, brick, as well as houses built using frame-shield technology.
The device of a monolithic foundation of a strip type occurs as follows:
- Marking of the site for future construction. The width of a standard monolithic strip foundation is about 400 mm.
- Having marked the future foundation around the entire perimeter, it is necessary to strengthen the reinforcement in the corners and check the right angles with the help of a goniometer or by simple measurement of diagonals. After that, a marking cord or a strong cord is pulled around the perimeter.
- Digging trenches must begin from the lowest point, excluding the difference in height of the future foundation. With dry and dense soil and the small size of the future home, it is enough to use trenches with a depth of 80-100 cm. With loose soil, the trench should be 10-15 cm lower than the level of freezing of the soil.
- Another important point is the erection of a sandy “pillow”, the thickness of which should be at least 30 cm. At the same time, its careful compaction is mandatory. This will evenly distribute the future load and minimize the effects of shrinkage..
- Further, in the dug trenches, formwork is installed, which is lined with waterproofing material from the inside to avoid leakage of the cement mixture. The formwork should rise 30 cm above the ground.
- Reinforcement allows to give the foundation high strength, increasing resistance not only to compressive stresses, but also to tensile and bending stresses. Reinforcement is carried out by individual metal rods or specially made steel structures. In order to be inside the monolith, the reinforcing mesh must retreat from the surfaces by 50 mm.
- Before pouring the foundation, it is necessary to take care of the waterproofing device, otherwise, due to groundwater, the process of destruction of the foundation is possible. One of the most effective methods of protection is the use of penetron, as well as a number of other modern waterproofing materials. The use of these materials helps to make the entire mass of concrete waterproof.
- After this, the step-by-step process of pouring concrete begins with the ramming of each layer. For the reliability of the structure, it is necessary to completely eliminate the presence of voids in the array. It is also best to pour concrete at a time, this will avoid joints and the so-called “cold seams”.
Construction of a monolithic foundation of a tiled type
Foundation monolithic slab – technology used in case of instability of soils.
Such a foundation will serve for more than a hundred years, subject to careful observance of all building codes in the construction process..
The technology for laying such a foundation is as follows:
- At first, a foundation pit is excavated, the depth of which will depend on the height of the basement floor. In this case, the minimum pit depth should be at least 30 cm.
- After preparing the pit, it is necessary to dig trenches for laying drainage pipes, and lay a layer of sand and gravel at the bottom of the pit, carefully tamping it.
- When installing the formwork, care must be taken to waterproof it. As a protective material, roofing material covered with thick polyethylene or modern waterproofing materials can be used. Next, a heat-insulating layer is laid out.
- Horizontal foundation reinforcement It is a bundle using reinforcement with 20×20 or 30×30 cm cells. The best option would be to lay out two layers of reinforcing mesh at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other.
- The following is the pouring process, in which it should be borne in mind that the minimum thickness of the concrete slab should not be less than 30 cm.
The construction of a monolithic foundation is a complex and expensive technological process that does not endure stops.
However, when planning construction, it should be remembered that a monolithic foundation has such advantages as:
- the possibility of construction in moving soils;
- simplicity of construction;
- short construction time.