How to make electrics and wiring in a bath
A bathhouse near your home is a dream of every person! Here you can really relax, meet friends and chat. The bathhouse, like any other room, requires electrification. It is worth remembering that the sauna belongs to fire hazardous areas. Therefore, the wiring in the bath must withstand all negative factors..
- A few words about security
- External wiring
- How power is calculated
- Organization of an internal network
- Wires for the supply of electricity
- Mandatory bath equipment
- Sockets, switches, other devices
A few words about security
To arrange life, people build houses and farm buildings such as arbors and baths. Nobody can do without electricity in the 21st century, but the cable wiring process in a wooden bath has its own nuances compared to a traditional brick building. Aggressive factors (high temperature, high humidity, wood, which easily burns) adversely affect the duration of operation of electricians.
More attention is paid to security. The air in the steam room has high humidity, therefore, the risk of electric shock to people increases if the insulation is poorly made or incorrectly carried out electrical wiring in the bath. Wiring must be laid in enclosed boxes or on a fireproof surface..
Do-it-yourself wiring in the bath can be done in two ways. The first method is “air”, the cable passes through the air, in the second case an underground cable is used. With this connection, when the distance to the bath is more than 25 meters, it is recommended to put intermediate supports.
When the wires pass over the carriageway, then at the lowest point, the cable height should be more than 6 meters. And if the wire rises above the footpaths, then a height of at least three meters should be maintained. Connecting a cable to the bathhouse, it is attached in such a way that the height from the ground to it is more than 2.75 meters.
However, it is much more reliable to conduct a wire in the ground. It is customary to use armored cables with copper veins, which has a cross section of at least 10 millimeters square. This cable is expensive, but moles and mice cannot bite it, because a steel braid is placed between the outer and inner plastic sheaths. Shrinkage of the earth is not afraid of him either. It is better not to use metal pipes for laying the cable, because they are able to collect condensate, and when the wire lies in the water, its life time is reduced.
How power is calculated
So, you built a bathhouse! After the construction of the sauna, engineering work begins, which relates to water supply, heating, sewer systems and, of course, laying the electric cable. wiring diagram in the bath It is developed taking into account the aggressive environment, especially when the wooden wall sheathing.
Before starting installation, you should approximately calculate the level of power that the network in the steam room will withstand. The strength of the electric current depends on this indicator, and therefore the choice of a cable of a certain section, which this current will conduct. You can find out the required power by estimating the sum of the power of all electrical appliances in the sauna. If there are only a few light sources in the room, then you can limit yourself to a couple kilowatts of power.
If in the sauna it is planned to additionally connect household appliances, for example, a boiler, a hairdryer and a curling iron, as well as install a washing machine in the dressing room, then it is better to take power with a margin. Power of 5-6 kilowatts will be enough for all needs. When the customer wants to use more energy-intensive equipment, for example, an electric stove for a sauna, it is recommended to take a power of 10-20 kilowatts.
Organization of an internal network
Wires for the supply of electricity
To conduct electricity in the bath, you need to take a cable in double heat-resistant insulation, for example, made of rubber. The most reliable wire has the so-called “rubber in rubber” type of insulation. It is good if the wire itself is copper, and all the current-conducting components are protected by permeable sheaths.
The electrical wiring in the bath is laid in PVC and other insulating pipes. It is strictly forbidden to place the cable in metal tubes or on tin surfaces, because in this case the insulation will additionally heat up and corrode. For electrical installation in a wooden bath, a wire with double insulation of such brands is selected – APRN, PRN, APRN, PRVD. Sometimes a single-core cable with PVC insulation is used.
If the wiring is done on wood, it is customary to lay sheet asbestos under the insulating pipes with wires, which has a thickness of about 3 millimeters, which on both sides will protrude 10 millimeters in cable. ABRN, PRI and PRVD wires with an outer sheath in a sauna can be laid without tubes.
To pass wires through walls, you must use PVC tubes. Porcelain bushings and funnels are used for terminating these wires: they are tightly inserted into the openings of wooden walls, each individual cable must be laid in a new insulating tube.
The best way to prevent short circuits in the steam room is to refuse cable routing inside the sauna. If you have not decided how to make the electrical wiring in the bath safe, then you can consider this option: insert the cable into the sauna through the ceiling or wall (from the street or from the washing) in a place where, for example, a lamp will hang.
Mandatory bath equipment
For the sauna, you can buy special sealed heat-resistant and moisture-proof luminaires with a sealed lead-in for the wire, made of metal and glass elements. In such a case, the metal fittings of the lamps must be grounded. All luminaires must be made in splashproof design. If it is not possible to place the switches outside the steam room, then they must also be in splash-proof enclosures..
An electrician in a wooden bath requires grounding: all heating devices (stoves, boilers), sockets in the washing room and wiring must be grounded in the most careful way. In luminaires, the operating voltage should not exceed 24 V. All switches and sockets should be moved outside the steam room to the dressing room and other rooms.
An important stage in electrical work is the purchase of equipment such as protective electrics for a bath. Residual current circuit breakers are indispensable for wooden saunas and baths. They are able to save the building from fire if a wiring closure occurs. Due to the high humidity in the bath, a 5-10 ampere residual current device should be used.
You can consider this solution when the light in the steam room is carried out from the outside. For example, you can insert several heat-resistant glass blocks into the partition adjacent to the dressing room, or install a glass door in the sauna. An electric heater can also be placed in the next room. Compiled similar wiring diagram baths without much labor.
Sockets, switches, other devices
In rooms with extremely high humidity (steam and washing) it is better not to install switches and sockets. They must be placed exclusively in the relaxation room and dressing room at a height that is at least 80 centimeters from the floor. Sockets should be selected with a protection level of at least IP-44 and always with covers. Lamps and luminaires are best bought with IP 54 protection.
Junction boxes, sockets and switches must be selected only in the splash-proof version for external wiring. The inside of the product must be covered by a housing on all sides. Input is recommended to be carried out from below, with a U-shaped elbow, since condensation will not flow into the product. Wiring in a wooden bath to electrical appliances should go along the shortest path. Never lead wire over the stove.!
After completing all installation work, it is recommended to test the insulation of all wires and the effect of grounding. Representatives from the fire service and the electronic surveillance authority should be invited to the inspection.
The air temperature in the steam room often rises above 100 degrees Celsius. Of course, it is necessary to use the wires in the steam room as little as possible, but it is better to completely exclude this possibility. In other rooms you can lay the most ordinary cable. It is necessary to fix the fixtures so that the electrical connection is possible immediately after the cable exits from the ceiling or wall.