Soil care is a labor-intensive process that allows you to get high yields of crops and at the same time increase the fertility of the land. It includes a number of measures: preparatory work, digging or loosening (depending on the type of soil and the preferences of the gardener or gardener), fertilizing and watering, without which a rare plant can do in the dry summer months. There are many devices and methods of soil care that can achieve the best results, making labor as efficient as possible..
- Site preparation and digging
- Loosening as an alternative to digging
- The process of cultivation and options for watering plants
- Types of fertilizers and the benefits of mulching
Site preparation and digging
Soil is a complex natural body consisting of mineral, organic components, various gases, liquids and living organisms. A person with the necessary knowledge can grow all kinds of crops so that the quality of the land does not deteriorate over time.
They begin to take care of the soil by preparing the site, which consists in cleaning up garbage, stones, uprooting old trees, stumps and shrubs, eliminating large weeds, as well as leveling the area reserved for the garden, flower beds or vegetable garden. The next step is digging the ground.
Digging is necessary, especially if the site consists of heavy clay soils that are periodically compacted, in places where it is planned to plant a new bed or flower bed, as well as in areas heavily overgrown with weeds. The digging process itself consists in taking out a shovel of land on a bayonet, which is turned over and put into the previous hole. It’s important to remove weed roots and stones..
It is best to dig or plow in the fall, leaving large clumps of land on the site that will be destroyed by wind and natural rainfall until spring. It will bring the greatest benefit to heavy loamy and clay soils. If the earth has managed to freeze, then it should not be touched, because as a result, the soil can become denser, and its structure can be broken.
Loosening as an alternative to digging
Some owners of household plots and gardens refuse to dig up the plot, because they believe that this leads to a violation of the physico-chemical composition, deterioration of the soil structure, and destruction of channels formed by underground organisms. These moves let moisture and oxygen into the soil, and spring awakening will take longer for the inhabitants of the soil.
It is also believed that mixing the upper nutrient and lower poorer layers of the earth reduces overall fertility. Therefore, they manage only with minimal processing: a layer of peat, compost or manure is formed on the soil surface. Seeds are sown in this culture medium. It is advisable to cover the soil from above with mulch.
This method can be effectively used for those plants whose root system does not grow deep into the soil. In other cases, a thorough overturning of the earth is indispensable. If the soil is not very clayey and quite loose, then you can dig it every 3 years, and the rest of the time it will be enough just to loosen the soil and fertilize. It is important to take into account that this event will bring maximum benefits if it is carried out in advance before planting seedlings and sowing seeds, then earthworms will assimilate a new layer of the earth.
The process of cultivation and options for watering plants
Soil care includes loosening the soil. This event makes the surface of the soil more structured, improves the penetration of liquid into the depth and reduces moisture loss. During the loosening of the earth along the way, all weeds that have sprouted are removed. Loosening the soil is much easier compared to digging. For this process, you can use the forks, sticking them into the thickness of the earth every 10 cm and swaying them from side to side. Then apply a cultivator, a hoe with a powerful rounded tooth or gruber. The result is a very loose layer of soil suitable for planting.
Further soil care actually comes down to timely fertilizer, top dressing and watering. Moisture is essential in the dry summer months and enters the earth in a variety of ways. Watering can be drip, subsoil, surface and sprinkling. It is advisable to lay irrigation networks immediately during the development of the site. The choice of a specific watering method depends on the available equipment, climatic conditions, and terrain..
With a drip irrigation system, the fluid flows directly to the zone of development of the root system. Intrasoil irrigation is carried out through pipes with holes that are laid in the ground. For surface water supply open channels are arranged, for sprinklers make a closed pipeline where sprinklers are installed.
Types of fertilizers and the benefits of mulching
Fertilizers should be applied after autumn digging. Allocate organic, minerals. In addition, it is possible to improve the quality of the soil by planting certain plants (rape, turnip, mustard, rapeseed, etc.), called organic fertilizers. Organic products may be of animal or plant origin. The former include bird droppings and manure, and the latter include peat and compost.
With mineral fertilizers, you must be extremely careful, follow the instructions. Most often used potash, nitrogen, lime, manganese and other drugs. As necessary, grown crops are fed with both diluted organic and mineral fertilizers.
To maintain plant health, as well as improve the quality of the soil, you can use mulching. In summer, it helps to control weeds, and prevents the drying of the land. In autumn, mulching is good for protecting the soil, especially one that does not dig for winter. First, you can add compost and cover it with a layer of foliage and sawdust..
Important to remember. Dense mulching materials can attract mice. The benefit of this event is that in winter the soil will freeze less and clog less, and in spring underground organisms will wake up there. For those areas where many slugs are found, it is better not to mulch.
It is not easy to take care of the soil, however it gives a positive effect. With proper implementation of the complex of these measures, it is possible to improve the condition of the soil, its structure, increase the amount of substances important for plant growth.