Concreting the floor in the garage is one of the main stages in creating a reliable “motorhome”, which can be safely entrusted with your faithful companion and a permanent iron companion. Some motorists are convinced that garage flooring it is enough to devote a minimum of time, focusing on the construction of walls. This is fundamentally erroneous opinion, because the floors are required to meet a number of requirements. Only in this case it is advisable to talk about creating the right conditions for car storage. So the floor in the garage must be durable, resistant to abrasion and shock, hygienic, economical and have minimal sound conductivity. But in order for the concrete screed to meet all the stated requirements, it is necessary to have an idea of the features of its device.
- Pros and Cons of Concrete
- What you need to know first?
- How to make a concrete floor in a garage: steps
- Gravel and sand backfill
- Waterproofing is an important point
- Reinforcement and pouring concrete mortar
- How to make thermal insulation
- Responsible final screed
Pros and Cons of Concrete
Concrete is one of the most popular building materials, and after the advent of metal reinforcement in the 20th century, it completely becomes the unconditional favorite used everywhere in construction. This material has a lot of advantages: durability, resistance to corrosion, ultraviolet, chemical attack, moisture. The main criterion for leadership is the compressive strength.
But, unfortunately, concrete, in addition to many advantages, also has disadvantages. Low bending strength, a long curing period, the need to comply with the humidity regime are factors that require compliance with certain rules during the construction process.
So, concrete must be protected and strengthened by reinforcement using rods or polymer threads. It should also be taken into account that concrete mortar gains 80% of strength within 7 days, and completely hardens within a month. Among other things, in the first days after pouring, it is important to carry out the hydration process.
What you need to know first?
There are three reasons that turn a concrete floor in a garage into a pipe dream when it becomes impossible to arrange it:
- the likelihood of flooding the garage;
- high water table;
- strong slope of the construction site.
In this case, the only option is to close the garage with a basement on the basement.
Under favorable conditions, the area in the center of the “box” is freed from loose soil to form a bed of gravel and sand.
The rigidity of the concrete structure is ensured by a multilayer structure consisting of:
- reinforced concrete layer (“rough floor”);
- waterproofing + insulation + films (if the floor is not insulated, then the cement “milk” acts as a layer;
- reinforced finish screed.
How to make a concrete floor in a garage: steps
Once the theoretical foundations are obtained, you can begin to practice, namely, to concrete flooring.
Gravel and sand backfill
First of all, the bottom of the pit needs to be leveled, tamped, greased with a surface for waterproofing with liquid clay. On the “box” of the garage, mark the future floor and draw out an indicative cord. Then gravel is poured (up to 0.8 mm), for which wooden poles are driven into the ground in increments of 1 meter, indicating the height of the backfill.
It is important!
Concrete flooring requires careful tamping of all layers of the “pie”. Gravel is pressed, sharp and large stones are removed.
Then sand is poured (a layer 10 mm thick). According to the norms of SNiP, the filter layer should be as even as possible. Permissible horizontal displacement – 20 mm (one way or the other).
Waterproofing is an important point
Before laying the “rough floor” you need to think about waterproofing. A plastic film (300 microns), which needs to be laid on the foundation of the future concrete floor, will perfectly cope with the role of waterproofing. The strips are overlapped (at least 15 cm) and glued together with a PVC tape. The film is carefully smoothed and folded at the corners. Make sure that at the edges she goes on the walls above floor level. Instead of a film, special membranes can be purchased.
Reinforcement and pouring concrete mortar
For reinforcement, the most commonly used metal mesh is 100×100 mm (rod diameter 5 mm). Concreting is carried out by strips, after installation of rails, the height of which should coincide with the level of the “rough floor”. In the intervals formed, concrete of the M-300 brand is poured, the layer should be slightly higher than the rails. The mixture needs to be tamped.
It is important!
In no case do not fasten the coating to the “box” of the garage, otherwise it will shrink and the structure will be damaged. The gaps should be along the pipes and walls, in the cracks install strips of elastic heat insulator.
After pouring, the “rough floor” should rest for at least 4 weeks. During this period, it is moisturized daily.
How to make thermal insulation
Before screed, the floor must be insulated. The best option – with the help of PSB-S-35 polystyrene (thickness 10 mm), designed for flooring. The heat insulator is laid on a waterproofing layer. The sheet form of expanded polystyrene somewhat complicates the process.
If you want to insulate the floor quickly, then you can use isocom roll, which will save time and effort. The insulation is covered with a film.
Responsible final screed
So our floor is almost ready. Getting to the final stage. Spray a metal mesh on the floor surface. We clearly set beacons in terms of level. The poured concrete is leveled with the help of a rule-rail, which not only removes the excess, but also rams the solution. For smoothing you need a steel iron.
In the absence of insulation, the role of the fastening element between the “rough” and the final floor will be played by the cement “milk” (plasticizer, water, cement). Every sector of the concrete floor is coated with it..
It is important!
The thickness of the floor in the garage is 130-150 mm. Keep in mind the slight slope of the final screed towards the outlet for water flow..
Features of concrete work
- It is allowed to lay the concrete floor both on the ground, having previously prepared a gravel-sand embankment, and on bearing reinforced concrete slabs. Evenness and performance will depend on the quality of laying the foundation;
- when pouring the floor on a concrete base, height differences of more than 10% of the plate thickness are not allowed;
- structural elements that absorb different loads to prevent cracking must be separated by sedimentary seams. To do this, in the areas adjacent to the surface of the slab to the columns or walls, a layer of sheet waterproofing materials is laid;
- the method of reinforcement is selected based on the design features, if it is planned to influence heavy loads, it is better to use a reinforced reinforcing cage together with the mesh. A more improved reinforcement method has also appeared – with the help of polymer fibers, when reinforcement with special fibers occurs around the entire perimeter.
The specifics of pouring the mixture
The concrete pouring procedure is the most important step when installing the floor in the garage.
Of great importance is the quality of the solution – its strength, mobility, water-cement ratio, air intake, the presence of foreign impurities.
Compaction and leveling of concrete is carried out by different methods:
2. Depth and surface vibrators.
3. Liquid Beacon Rules.
As beacons (and formwork at the same time), vibration rails are used, for which guides can be used.
Concrete laying has features that you need to know:
- experts advise combining the formwork line with expansion joints, in most cases this is the docking point of the freshly laid mortar;
- use general construction, the so-called “heavy” concrete, having a density of 1800 / 2500kg / m3, mobility P-2, which equals a shrinkage of the cone of about 10 cm;
- sometimes it is possible to use concrete with other indicators, it all depends on the method of installation, the purpose of the floor, the intensity of compaction;
- if the solution is purchased, then the concrete mixer can discharge the mixture directly to the base;
- the vibration rail needs to be moved along the guide; under the influence of vibration, the mixture sags and is evened out at the same time. Where concrete sags below the level of the vibrating unit, the mixture must be added with a shovel;
- use vibrorail should be careful not to stratify the solution. Use superplasticizer to prevent delamination..
Last step: grout
After the work is completed, it remains to grout. The procedure is carried out after 8 hours with the help of compact single-rotor units with 60 cm blades. If the garage area is very large, then you will need a concrete-cooling machine, which is referred to in professional circles as a “helicopter”.
Do not forget that the entrance to the garage is also advisable to concrete. For some time, of course, wooden flooring will also last, but it will often have to be changed and repaired.
That’s all. Now the quality of the concrete floor in your garage is beyond doubt, which means that you can safely entrust such a reliable “motor home” to the most expensive – your favorite car.