Water supply

Septic tanks for a country house: classification, principles of design

Septic tanks for a country house

In the good old days of vacation homes oftenall were small hut, located on dedicated everyone who wants six acres of fertile (and sometimes not) of land for suburban area. Toilet usually housed in one of the farthest corners and generally looked as follows: over a hole in the ground placed wood flooring with a hole, and this construction is hidden from prying eyes wooden walls. Of course, few of us know about the construction of a device such as a septic tank for a country house, as the country was carried out very little time.

Modern country house - a full-fledgedaccommodation, equipped with all amenities. Each owner is trying to build a house and to facilitate the construction of communal living facilities. Almost every private house is equipped with a bathroom, a toilet, it sets a washing machine and dishwasher, carried water, a little less built room or cottage. As a consequence, there is a need for a sewer system devices as draining sewage and waste directly into nearby bodies of water or in the ground is not only unacceptable from an ethical point of view, but also considered a criminal offense.


  • Types of sanitation facilities
  • What is a septic tank
  • The operating principle of accumulation of septic tanks
  • Common types of treatment facilities
    • Concrete septic tanks - the most demanded scheme
    • Sewage treatment device made of plastic
    • stainless steel Septic

Types of sanitation facilities

If you equip the common cesspool, theneven very frequent pumping of waste with the help of specialized equipment will not save the situation, as in this case the pathogenic microbes will still remain in the recess and maybe get through the underground water sources of drinking water. To avoid this, you must first take the local sewerage organization.

The main types of sewage:

  • septic tanks;
  • storage tanks;
  • biological purification facilities provided with aeration (oxygenation forced by the compressor);
  • mixed structures (septic tank with a biofilter).

In this article we consider in detail one type of sewage devices - septic tanks fitted to suburban areas.

Interesting: septic tank could be called a full sewage, if not one "but": in the septic tank is not carried out recycling, but they are saved to the pumping in special compartments and the water passed through the filter, is discharged into the ground.

What is a septic tank

Septic tank - a system for the collection and treatment of domestic wastewater for cottages and country houses.

The principle of operation of this device - the gravitational filtering (settling of denser substances) and post-treatment using biofermentov.

Installation of a septic tank

Installation of a septic tank

The benefits of installing a septic tank at the suburban areas:

  1. The closed system ensures that no unpleasant odors in the home.
  2. Environmentally friendly system.
  3. Long-term service life.
  4. A sufficiently high degree of wastewater treatment.
  5. No noise in the system.
  6. Ease of installation and ease of use.

The operating principle of accumulation of septic tanks

As is known proportion of pollutants in the wastewater seldom exceeds 0.5% of the total. That is the task before the septic tank is to allocate these substances, and the remaining clean water to drain into the ground.

Let's examine how this happens.

The device septic tank

septic tanks Device for a country house

Initially the waste coming into the chamber through an inlet pipe I 1. Here drains asserted and divided into three parts:

- Top form substances having the smallest share (2);

- Located in the middle of the supernatant water;

- At the bottom of the vessel falls substance with a specific gravity greater weight of water (3).

Overflow fluid to the next chamber IIat the level of one third the height of the device (4), so that the content of pollutants in the second reservoir will be much lower. Here, the process is repeated, with the only difference being that there are no pop-up completely of matter and the focus is on those particles that have been accidentally tightened to the second chamber in the loss to the bottom.

In the first two tanks also occuroxygen-free (anaerobic) digestion followed by release of methane, causing the bacteria are found in all human activity products, eat them, making these products in a biologically safe ground. Water gate, closing both the chamber, prevents unpleasant odors seeping out.

The third chamber III is a reservoirfilled with a special substance (5), for example, expanded clay. There is no water and continuously circulates the air. Aerobic bacteria consume the precipitate formed as a result of fluid flow from the second tank to the filler surface, transforming it into carbon dioxide and vinegar. At the exit of the chamber is obtained clean water, not bringing any harm to the environment. Clean the compartment is not required, as it is considered to be self-cleaning, but it is time to change the placeholder to the next few years to achieve the best results.

And what has become of all the remaining substance? All surfaced particles degrade over time and fall to the bottom, so the septic tank cleaning process is reduced to remove the sludge at the bottom of chambers. To this should be periodically supernatant was pumped out with special equipment.

Tip: do not forget to provide a septic tank for ventilation output produced gas.

More modern wastewater treatment system - septic tank filtration. They can be divided into two types:

  • septic tanks with soil filtration, the most widespread. This type of construction provides filtering using a bacteria present in the soil;
  • septic tanks with factory integrated biological filters other than the introduction of specially designed microbes.

All filtration septic tank must be warm inthe cold season, and in any case not to allow them to cool in order to avoid killing the bacteria and anaerobic micro-organisms performing filtering.

Tip: in order to avoid death bacteria in the septic tank must be at least a fifth of the residue left on the bottom.

Common types of treatment facilities

There are several types of septic differing material from which they are made:

  • reinforced concrete;
  • plastic;
  • stainless steel.

Concrete septic tanks - the most demanded scheme

Concrete septic tank for a country houseconsumer reviews confidently deduce the leading position. Although the appearance of these devices does not differ elegance and beauty, but it is a septic tank are best suited for our climate in the country. Of course, installation of reinforced concrete construction is somewhat more complicated the other types, but its advantages compensate for all the inconvenience of installation. So, what is so good concrete septic tank?

construction of concrete septic tank

The volume of concrete septic tank is adjusted in diameter and the number of rings installed

  1. This design will never emerge and the necessary volume can be achieved by controlling the amount and rings containers collected from them.
  2. Hygroscopicity concrete can be improved by the introduction of various additives into it.
  3. Long service life (up to 30 years).

All containers are buried in the ground and on the surface there is only one hatch, designed to supplement the special bacteria and pumping sludge from the bottom.

Tip: The closer to the surface of the concrete ring is, the more it is exposed to destruction, so the top of the best brands of cement used B-15 and above.

Sewage treatment device made of plastic

plastic septic tank

Plastic septic tanks are different designs easily

In plastic septic tanks have one property, which is both a great advantage and no less important drawback. Such designs are very easy.

On the one hand - this is very good, asthey can be transported over very long distances without difficulty, and on the other - leads to ease of construction rapid ascent to the surface, especially when installing in areas with loose soil, and a large number of surface waters.

Council: to prevent the "ascent", the installation of plastic septic tank is recommended to mount special cables or anchors to the reinforced concrete base. And to protect against damage by moving stones in the soil they need to be reinforced with fiberglass.

It should be noted that the plastic structures are characterized by long service life (up to 50 years) and easy to install.

stainless steel Septic

These septic tanks did not receive a largeDistribution. These designs are very heavy, be sure to need a crane to install them. In addition, stainless steel is highly susceptible to corrosion, so even if the septic tank to treat specific substances will hardly be able to maintain a sealed container for a long time.

Metal septic tank

Metal septic tank is very difficult and requires the use of special equipment during installation

In today's market presents a septic tank anddomestic and foreign manufacturers. They all have their advantages, for example, polymer structures of Alta Bio high reliability, due to the presence of the thickened wall (10 mm). Septic French brand offers Sotralentz septic tank with built-in primary clarifier improves the quality of cleaning. Models of this company is completely non-volatile.

Making the final choice is only after a thorough analysis of the system requirements and weigh all positive and negative sides.

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