How to do well with their hands
Land without a source of water supplyNowadays (from boilers, washing machines and dishwashers) is hard to imagine, because the organization and provision of irrigation water of a country house very necessary thing. This can be centralized or pipe water from the well. Also, there is a common trend and arrangement of wells in areas with centralized water supply. Why? Because many people believe that "own" well water tastes better and fresher. You can build a well with their own hands, without resorting to the help of hired experts; it's not very complicated, but it requires knowledge, skill and ingenuity.
- Advantages of your own well
- water Search
- People's method of determining the aquifer
- Choosing a place for the well tubular or mine?
- Safety - a must!
- Materials for digging wells
- Digging of the well, the sequence of work
- Protecting the well from contamination
- Quicksand in well shaft
- Use and Care
- Making well with their hands
- Decorative well as a landscape decoration
Advantages of your own well
As already mentioned, the water from its welldelicious, but it is not the only advantage. This is sort of a safety fund, because the overall system can not guarantee the absence of failures and subsequent interruptions in water supply. In addition, the number of users increases, and not a single case when the central water supply can not cope with stronger loads. And if the city water in the area is not at all, and far from open water, the well becomes a unique and invaluable source of water.
Digging wells with their hands in theattractive and suitable place to begin the search of water, that is, first and foremost, it is necessary to fix the presence of underground water resources, as well as to determine the depth of the aquifer.
Equally important are the quality and quantity of theirand rock characteristics, separating from the surface of the aquifer. Under the aquifer lies breed that (a surprising fact) does not pass water, but does not give it. The main sources of groundwater are considered precipitation as well as filtered water from open sources (lakes, rivers).
Ground water comes in three main types:
- Perched - lies deep from the surface. It is poorly cleared, so the water supply can not be used. For this reason, in the construction of wells such layer should be isolated from seeping into the Pit Mine. This type of groundwater is characterized by low volume and depends on the degree of precipitation;
- Groundwater - the closest to the aquiferunchanged stocks. The level of this type of groundwater in the well is installed flush with the water-bearing rock. In the natural environment, such water springs are represented - it is cool, crystal clear water with a pleasant taste;
- Artesian water - lies at a considerable depth, and compressed two waterproof layers. When tunneling through the layer of water poured out under his pressure, often a fountain.
People's method of determining the aquifer
Hydrogeology Science recognizes one validmethod of determining the depth of the aquifer - the drilling of exploration wells. But this method is relatively expensive and gardens, it is used infrequently. But exploration is necessary to carry out, especially if there are no reference points in the surrounding areas.
The popular and economical method - Dowsing, sheIt is a unique human ability to respond to the biofield using primitive tools - metal frames. From the amplitude of this rotation depends on the scope and depth of the water. The precise depth is not determined, but the optimal location of future wells will be found. Although the reliability of this technique hydrogeologists questioned.
The most high-quality and time-tested method -collection of information on actual aquifers in the area. It is necessary to be interested in the well column height, depth and rate of replenishment of water sources.
Choosing a place for the well
The first thing you should pay attention - the distance from the consumption point (home). But it is not only one factor influencing the choice of the well location. It is necessary to analyze these moments:
- Digging wells with their hands can not perform the soil near the sources of pollution: the manure and compost heaps, area drainage of sewage, etc .;
- If the land with a slope from wells to dig the mine should be higher than the source of contamination;
- Hydrogeological nature of the terrain - in marshy ground water is not always safe to drink because of the high probability that the deposits in the quagmire it.
The minimum distance from the nearest sourcecontamination should be 25 m to the well, trying to dig the well shafts on the slopes of ravines, gullies and on the river bank is useless, because the ground water will be drained.
Also important is the fact that the construction of the wellwith his own hands is highly recommended in winter / autumn. Seasonal fluctuations in the groundwater level can be 1-2 meters, and in the autumn and winter, they have the lowest mark. If you ignore these recommendations and the construction of a well, for example, in April, it is possible to stay in the winter without water.
The next stage - the choice of the well type: Shaft or pipe, as well as the choice of the drive for the feed - pump or manual. But, before proceeding to direct excavation, you also get all the necessary permits.
Tube or mine?
The main difference between these types of wells -way to create them. Mine wells digged shovel and tubular punched. Such selection depends on several factors. When is deep aquifer dug well have to dig for a long time. But beyond this parameter is set to another and the number of stones between the surface and the aquifer. If a homemade tool that would be very difficult to break through the solid rock, then a best option - the type of mine.
Safety - a must!
Digging a well with their hands on a mandatorythe order should be based on safety. This overriding question because statistics says that accidents during such operations are not isolated.
The main requirements to comply with work safety:
- Free area: within a radius of 2-3 meters from the well shaft;
- Mine mouth barrier fence made of boards, which are set on edge;
- Every time before starting work, you must check the strength of the rope, lifting the bucket loaded with soil;
- At a depth of more than six meters have to use a tether;
- Mechanical lifts must necessarily be equipped with a self-locking mechanism;
- Daily checks of the lifting devices;
- Alert the worker at the bottom of the descent of something;
- Periodic inspections of air quality in the well shaft using a burning candle. If necessary, you need to ventilate the mine (an umbrella or a vacuum cleaner).
Materials for digging wells
Usually well settling rings height0.8 m, 1 m in diameter, with grooves. There are rings and more, but they are used very rarely. You can make the rings well with their hands, as to make them available materials, and work with concrete does not need a high level of professionalism. Yet the foundations for concrete preparation technology you need to know and strictly observe the proportion is "ingredients" used for reinforcement of the steel wire and rods, as well as pre-build the formwork of the two cylindrical surfaces.
Also dug well can be made from a frame, but the life of this well is significantly reduced, stone and brick - a costly and inconvenient material.
If the water table is deep, theused for the construction of the well a metal pipe or plastic, but provided little depth. When using the pump in addition to the bottom you need to install the filter.
Digging of the well, the sequence of work
The immediate digging wells has been one person, and the rest are working on the surface: lift the selected soil and transported him to the side.
So, how to dig a well with their hands? The process is as follows: digging a pit, then it keeps the first ring. The soil from under him selected, and then as the burial is done following the installation of the concrete ring. Likewise, the whole column is incremented shaft it slides downward as the sample of soil beneath the lower ring.
Excellent choice when workers will be three. Then the work is distributed according to the principle: the first works in the mine with a crowbar and shovel. He digs the ground and turns the crowbar, along the way, the stones. Stone tied with ropes and retrieved from the well.
At the mouth of the well is another employee, the taskWhich brings up a bucket using a wooden gate on the driver's seat. He also worked out makes the breed provided for this purpose. The third man at this time resting and waiting for shift change. The process is carried out intensively, with workers often smenivayut each other.
At a depth of three meters of air temperaturewell mine does not exceed 10 degrees, the humidity is high, and the air in the pit alone is not ventilated. To correct the situation, you can use an umbrella. It must be in an open state, of course, lowered and raised from the well. The microclimate of such procedures after a bit of improvement, hence the worker's activity returns to normal.
Capacity occurs well before the level ofaquifer. His approach is noticeable to reduce a few degrees the temperature of the air, and are formed mini fontanels on mine walls. This stage is the most crucial and complex, including, therefore it is necessary to pre-prepare and have a good rest, because digging in the water-carrier is hard labor.
After resting active labor begins, you mustrapidly remove the soil with water, because of this process depends on the debit of the well. Therefore it is necessary to work hard and without interruption dig 3-4 meters.
Important: a good helper in this case could be a mud pump.
The bottom of the well shaft is lined with gravel, whichwill perform the function of the filter (15-30 cm thick). The gap between the tunnel and shaft column is filled with gravel, the last concrete ring in the ground is not deepened.
Protecting the well from contamination
How well do your hands and protect itperched on the dirt and external factors? Fill the joint between the rings linen cord, as well as cementing is recommended to protect the shaft from falling perched. And outside the mine surface is covered with waterproofing materials (constructed earthen castle).
Important: a clay castle - reliable protection from external polluting factors of spring snowmelt and rain water and other contaminants.
After filling the pit with water pump should pump it to obtain high quality and crystal clear water.
Quicksand in well shaft
Cases falling on quicksand are not unique. It is possible to pass only the best of circumstances - low rate of soil movement and low power inflow. But the presence of floaters is also an undeniable plus - excellent, a constant flow of water.
Important: when the well digging occurs in quicksand, you definitely need to use a lock type of connection rings, that is, they should be planted firmly in the groove.
At the bottom of quicksand set of wooden shieldhardwood. It is wrapped with wire mesh braid braiding method. These actions are well protected from siltation and sand percolation.
Use and Care
Every well must meet the sanitaryrequirements. To limit the access of animals should build a fence around the well. And well it should be equipped with a cover which will protect it from insects falling leaves, rain.
During the year, the well should be inspected using a powerful light source. If there were found foreign objects, these must be removed.
As for the water intake, it should be a regular water renewal. If not functioned well in the winter, the spring water in the well is recommended to update several times.
Making well with their hands
Construction of the well decorated endscanopy, which set the goal of wood with a metal handle. Then the collar is attached rope or strong cord. A length of chain is used, which contributes to the water immersion buckets for bucket attachment.
The top of the canopy can be issued in the form ofkind of house, for example, with hinged door, a gable roof. The upper ring can be decorated with facing bricks or stone. This is not a simple get well, and with decorative elements.
Decorative well as a landscape decoration
The basic material for the manufacture ofdecorative wells are wooden logs. This material is associated with cleanliness, comfort wooden tower-chambers in the Russian tradition of construction. Well decorative their own hands - a perfect solution for giving the site an extraordinary kind and unpretentious. If an ordinary well is not needed, then why not build such a wonderful and original construction. This well plays a decorative element, and pleasing to the eye the guests and hosts the site. It is a very attractive building with a log cabin, bucket and lid, all as at present, only without the mine water.
There are cases that such decorative wells hide manholes, and often they are used as a garden decoration. Plus, in their wooden house you can plant flowers.
Clean and tasty water in the well, beautifulmodern ground part and, most importantly, work with their own hands - a wonderful combination. And, the truth, having spent so much effort to build a well, you need to take care of his decent and attractive appearance. Then he will serve not only the direct purpose, but would look nice.