The need for a system of construction that providesnormal ventilation in a confined space, dictated by the requirements of building and sanitary regulations. For the normal life, for labor activity and health just to save a man needs fresh air, needs removal "waste" air mass saturated with harmful gaseous substances, dust, bacteria and other contaminants. A well-executed design of ventilation ensures perfect circulation of the air flow, help to form and maintain a stable microclimate conditions are optimal for people in the confined space.
- Rules and regulations of the organization ventilation
- Project Design Principles
- Phased design specifics
- The calculation of the balance of heat gains feasibility studies or the first stage
- Working draft - the final product
Rules and regulations of the organization ventilation
In areas equipped to cope with the badduties ventilation, increases dramatically the content of carbon dioxide in the air molecules, pathogens. Consequence - headaches, repetitive infections, drowsiness, excessive fatigue, in order to avoid that each person is in the room needed:
- at least 20 m³ / h (comfortable up to 60 m³ / h) of fresh air coming from the outside;
- the relative humidity of the air mass to 50%;
- the rate of air exchange commission of 0.50 m / s.
Professional design of ventilation systemsand air-conditioning are closely related to each other, is obliged to meet the above requirements, regulated SNIP. However, designers are always trying to settlement breathability, slightly exceeded the statutory minimum. And the cost of exhaust air, by default equal to enter vary depending on the destination premises, for example:
- bathroom 50 m³ / h;
- at least for the toilet 25 m³ / h;
- for kitchen space of 90 m³ / h.
All household and utility "compartments", includingpantry, too, must be provided with ventilation. All air consumption figures eventually added up, the result is the estimated hood. Inlet and outlet air in this volume is to provide a designed system.
Project Design Principles
In fact, the design of ventilation systemsIt is the selection of equipment and the development of methods of wiring, reasonable technical, architectural, sanitary, and economic criteria. The purpose of the project - development of the system to cope with the trouble-free supply of air and tap into the calculations for an apartment or a country house this settlement amount.
- The technical side of the issue is inmeeting the architectural requirements. The search and selection of optimal hardware and wiring options, provides absolute working capacity of the system, the ability to troubleshoot and perform warranty service without problems. The author of the project is necessary to pick up the equipment not only perfectly doing his job, but also serves as the maximum time. The basic equipment and additional equipment is chosen taking into account the category to which the room on fire and explosion hazard criteria.
- Ventilation and air conditioning onopportunities should not violate the architect created an "image" of the building. Contributed by installing units and ducts must not change drastically spoil the facades and interior painting.
- Removal of contaminated air and supply freshclean air mass must comply with sanitary and epidemiological requirements. The designer must find a solution to the noise from the unit will not interfere with the owners and did not disturb the neighbors.
- Also important economic aspect and the choice of the mostcheap schemes, on the basis of which you will design and installation of ventilation systems. The desire to save does not cause any loss of quality.
Typically, the object is developed several fundamentally different variants. All of them are discussed with the customer. The client compares and evaluates each of the circuits, selects the best.
Phased design specifics
The rationale for the start of development isspecification for the design of ventilation, which are often complementary to the task of designing air conditioning system design. TOR account lays the uneven temperature distribution on the object and in every room, it is necessary to adjust the ventilation calculations.
The calculation of heat gains balance
When calculating heat gains are taken into account the internal and external heat loads.
- The category assigned external loadspositive and negative temperature factors on the occurrence of which affect atmospheric and natural phenomena. They depend on the time of day and the season, for their determination using climatological norms in the region. This category includes the heat loss through the building constructions in the cold season, the heat flow to the room is in direct sunlight, etc.
- Internal loads are only positive. This heat is generated by the owners, as well as lighting, heating, other household appliances.
Aerodynamic calculations justify the choice of ventilation equipment to help pinpoint the location for the installation of ventilation equipment and for laying tracks.
Feasibility studies or the first stage
Development of feasibility studyIt is produced by the increased values. In the first "enlarged" approach defined type, number and capacity of the ventilation units. This sets the preliminary cost of the planned installation. At this stage in the design of supply and exhaust ventilation and air conditioning system, you can make adjustments if the client for some aspects of the scheme will not hold.
Working draft - the final product
It is a detailed pre-processingestablished a feasibility study. In this step, calculations are conducted airflow with high precision, thermal discharge, selected instruments, the number of diffusers is calculated on specific parameters. Further plans are drawn wiring and axonometric scheme, run hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations.
After obtaining the consent of the customer's operating set of schemes, drawings with an explanatory note sent to the SES and fire inspection, and then with all requiring a permit is transferred to the executor.
No doubt, the design of ventilationcountry house or upgrading HVAC equipment of a city apartment, must comply with the specialists with appropriate education and experience in this area. However, the customer - not the last participant in the process, having the right to make changes to require rework, track way to create a project and to monitor the expression in the life of his ideas. He needs to be, as they say, "in the subject." Information about the stages of development and specific help to the property owner time to insert a loaded word and prevent violations.