Q. What is a sinkhole and how itneed is becoming more popular, because as the number of owners of cottages and country houses is growing steadily. Centralized sewage system - easy, not always available, so to ensure a comfortable stay, you need to worry about the presence of all the benefits of civilization on their own. If competently approach to solving this problem, the network will serve faithfully for many years.
- Septic Tank in a private house: advantages and disadvantages
- Varieties of cesspools
- Development without lining
- The construction of the tire
- The design of the formwork made of wood
- Sump brick
- With metal formwork
- Decking of polymeric materials
- The most common concrete rings
- Sump own hands: materials and work progress
- Where to arrange a tank for receiving waste?
- volumes and dimensions Norms
- Materials needed for work
- The device cesspool
It is noted that the septic tank in the country - the mostcommon way of organizing the sewer system. It is not by accident. The principle of operation of the invention is simple: sewage, kitchen leftovers and used water drains piped to the storage device, located in the courtyard. As his fill specialized services to clean.
Septic Tank in a private house: advantages and disadvantages
any autonomous sewerage It has both pluses and minuses. Septic Tank, of course, is no exception. Pros:
- environmentally friendly: sewage discharge are displayed on the station; Drive tightness because cesspools bottomless prohibited SNIP regulations, prevents contamination of groundwater and soil;
- installation and ease of operation;
- lack of dependence on the groundwater level;
- no effect on the operation of the type of soil quality.
- possible odor, especially if used well. But the application of plastic containers and single-chamber septic tank this can be avoided;
- the need for frequent call assenizatorskayaFitting. Owners of country houses should be noted that cleaning cesspools must be made at permanent residence at least once every 2 weeks.
Varieties of cesspools
There are several ways to build cesspools, which differ only in the method of attachment of the walls and the corresponding period of the life of this method.
Development without lining
It is used very rarely, because the wallfall rapidly, reducing the useful volume. Such pits advisable to arrange on limestone soils, but due to the fact that this ground is not common, and the construction of the walls without finishing demand for the same.
Sump of tires
After serving this design for about 30 years. It should be noted 2 nuance. The first - a hole can not be cleaned. Second - filtering area - this area of the hole in the tire, which, of course, less than in any other version of the construction of drainage wells.
Accordingly, the bottom silts up quickly and is no longer filter the water. Before constructing the pit of tires - think carefully.
The design of the formwork made of wood
The service life depends on the type of wood and is an average of 7 years. Of course, a good tree to let such a thing - is unreasonable, so widespread these latrines are not received.
After serving for 15 years. It comes into disrepair due to the decomposition of wooden struts and bricks that at constant contact with water turns to clay. But the brick pit latrines are suitable for repair, if desired, gradually replacing the brick inserts made of concrete, you can stretch the life of another 50 years.
With metal formwork
As in the case with the tree, the performance of the defined process of surface treatment and metal thickness. In the application of expensive materials can not know the worries for 60 years.
Decking of polymeric materials
Such designs are called "septic tanks" andquite widely used in the construction of a modern country. Innovations have both supporters who can not get enough of the acquisition, as well as opponents, criticizing the achievement of innovative technologies.
The most common concrete rings
Recognized as the best option for the relationshipprice quality. After serving such a pit no less than 100 years, delighting the undeniable advantages: the absence of decay and aging of the material and the ability to withstand the strong rings of ground displacement.
Sump own hands: materials and work progress
Construction cesspool - a multi-stage process that requires strict adherence to a particular sequence.
Where to arrange a tank for receiving waste?
The pit is constructed so that it can freely drive assenizatorskaya machine having, by the way, impressive dimensions.
Important! Septic Tank should be at a distance of 5 meters from the wells of drinking water, residential buildings and areas with fruit trees. The distance from the fence should be at least 2 meters.
Determine a location, you need to knowthe depth of the groundwater and get acquainted with the figures seasonally adjusted. If the water coming to the surface of the Earth is closer to 2 meters, the sump should be above the water intake line, and you need to equip the pit diagonally away from the source (25 meters).
volumes and dimensions Norms
Determine the scope of the future storage case. On average, a person in need to 0.5 cubic meters So, for a family of 5 persons cesspool must be at least 8 cubic meters in volume. For example, residents of a country house used by water heaters run on electricity. Then 1 person per day will consume about 150 liters of water. If heaters - gas, then - 180 l. Available figures should be multiplied by the number of residents in the house. It turns out that the average family uses 700 liters of water per day (0.7 cubic meters).
Dimensions, again roughly, as follows: the length of the sump - 3 m, width - 1 meter, depth - 1.5.
Materials needed for work
Once the size and the scope defined, you might think about purchasing all the necessary materials. We need:
1. Concrete. Volume + Volume of the bottom cover. For the preparation you need 6 pieces of rubble middle fraction, 1 part cement and 4 parts sand. The amount of water in the batch is selected.
2. Brick. We calculate the height of the walls, divided by the height of the brick + 6 mm (seam) and get the number of rows. Then we find out the number of pieces in a row and multiply by 0.6 (for chess laying).
3. Sand and cement get at calculation of paragraphs 1 and 2 automatically.
4. Valves. For better use of the reinforcement of 12 mm diameter rebar or wire with a diameter of 8 mm. Mortgaging reinforcement square with sides of 30 cm.
This need to know! If you have old pipes or bed nets, they are perfect for reinforcement.
5. Tools: roulette, building level, pegs, rope, a shovel, a bucket, a concrete mixer, trowel, pickaxe and a staircase.
The device cesspool
You do not know how to make a cesspool? Then, the following statement will incidentally. Construction begins with the time-consuming - excavation, which may take a week of time, if not more. The walls of the pit are aligned and protected, the bottom is designed with a bias towards the future of the hatch. The pit must be rectangular or square shape. At the bottom is arranged sand cushion thickness of 15 cm, which is placed a layer of concrete of the same thickness. After the concrete has set firmly (it usually takes 7 days) on it makes a cement-sand screed 4 cm.
This need to know! The bottom can be made of ready-made concrete slabs, which also has a slope.
We proceed to the construction of the walls. If you wish to lay out the wall with rubble stone or burnt bricks, it is advised to make an earthen castle. The bricks are laid on a matrix of sand and cement mortar. Walls should be plastered with the same cement-sand mortar.
It is important! Cement will extend the service life of plaster and wall coverings bitumen mastic prevent the risk of filtration.
The next stage - the overlap device thatIt must be reliable. This will require thick logs or design of reinforced concrete: columns, slabs, lintels. On the sides of the pit shall be overlapped not less than 30 cm. In the course of the work it is important to leave a hole for the hatch size of 0.7 x 0.7.
To cover made formwork dimensionswhich is larger than the sump 20 cm concrete poured into it in two layers: first, the first (7 cm), then the valve stack, with a pitch between the bars of 10 cm, and then - a second layer..
After setting concrete preparedfloor is covered with waterproofing material, such as plastic wrap or roofing material, and thrown on top of soft clay, slag or soil. Manhole cover must be double. This will help prevent freezing in the winter and spread the contents of odor in the summer. The first cover is installed on the ground level, the second - on the overlap level. The space between the lids expanded clay or slag is poured or laid insulation appropriate size: pieces of foam or mineral wool. The top cover must be waterproof.
Work completed: now you know how to make a cesspool - a reliable and environmentally friendly stand-alone sewer own making!