The sewer system consists of a setelements, providing a total harmonious operation of the network as a whole. Manhole is in this case the main structure, carrying not only the functioning of the test, but also timely cleaning sewer. Thus, we can say that the observation wells - the central link of the outer sewage.
- Types of manholes
- Traditional construction of an important part of the water drain
- The standards in the manufacture of manhole
- Intervals between manholes
Types of manholes
Depending on the application is accepted to allocate following types of manholes:
- linear, mounted on straight sections of all the sewage system at a distance which depends on the diameter of the pipe;
- rotary shafts arranged in a changeline direction, ie cornering. This type wells differs from the linear configuration of the tray-shaped outline in a smooth curve with the smallest radius of curvature which is equal to three diameters of pipes. The angle of rotation should not exceed 90 degrees.
- nodal satisfied in several points of connectionsewer lines. They have a trough assembly connecting no more than one diverter and three feed pipes. Nodal wells in large sewer networks called connecting chamber;
- controls are carried out in parts of the accessionfactory, yard or intra-network to the street, and they are located outside the borders of the red construction lines - from the houses. Wells type control needed to manage the work of the sewer system to add objects;
- wash wells needed for flushing the system in primary (starting) areas where sediment is possible due to low velocities;
- Perepadnaya wells are provided in the areas where the elevation varies tray outlet and inlet pipes;
- specific wells with enlarged dimensions manhole neck and mounted at the collectors of 600 mm in diameter at a distance of more than 50 m apart.
Traditional construction of an important part of the water drain
Regardless of the standard accessories lookout drain well It consists of a base tray, the working chamber, the neck and the hatch.
Wells can be made of different materials: bricks, concrete blocks, rubble stone.
The scheme (plan) manholes areround, rectangular and polygonal shapes. The base consists of a reinforced concrete slab, which is placed on the rubble. The main part of the process is the tray, which is made of reinforced concrete (M 200) with the use of templates - formwork and then rubbing the surface zhelezneniem or cementing.
The conduit enters the tray portion bywherein the wastewater flow. The linear portion of the wells Tray straight and the surface at the bottom - vertical. The height of the tray - is not less than the greater diameter of the pipe. berm (shelves) are formed on both sides of the tray, which is necessary to give a bias to 0.02 in Tray side. The shelves function as platforms on which during the operational activities posted workers.
Important! The working chamber has the following dimensions: Height 1800 mm, and the diameter depends on the diameter of the tubes. Thus, when d 600 mm - 1000 mm; when d 800-1000 mm - 1500 mm; d at 1200 - 2000 mm.
Openings well standard - 700 mm. With a diameter of 600 mm neck tube should be installed so that they allow the entry of cleaning tools (cylinders and balls). Openings and workers equipped with cameras mounted ladders or staples for the descent.
The transition to the neck is possible with the help of the cone or reinforced concrete slab block. On the ground level of the neck end with a hatch that can be mild or severe.
Important! Installing manholes at the improved road surface is carried out by 70 mm from the surface of the earth - in the green zone; in the undeveloped area - 200 mm above the ground.
If the well is located on a plot of uncoated around the hatch should build a blind area for removal water.
The standards in the manufacture of manhole
At first glance it may seem that the door - notthis too is an important element of the manhole, but in fact it is not. The proof is in the standards that must be observed in their manufacture. Basic material - iron (GOST 3634-61). Cast iron covers consist of a body with one cover to be mounted on the neck of 700 mm in diameter and with a hole for the passage of a diameter of 620 mm. Heavy hatches are placed on the roadway and have a mass of 134 kg, and lightweight, stacked on sidewalks preferably weigh less than 80 kg.
Along with the cast iron used for the manufacture of polymeric materials that are durable, ease, durability, and environmental security.
It is interesting! The hatches in the manufacture of polymer added special fillers which make the recycling process impossible. That is why such manholes are not recycled for reclaimers no interest.
Intervals between manholes
When the device it should be noted that the distance between manholes linear type depends on the pipe diameter. It looks like this:
- d = 150 mm - 35 meters;
- d = 200 mm - 50 meters;
- d = 500 mm - 75 meters;
- d = 700-900 mm - 100 meters;
- d = 1000-1400 mm - 150 meters;
- d = 1500-2000 mm - 200 meters;
- d> 2000 - 300 meters.
Manholes - the main componentsewer system, not only ensures unhindered inspection and monitoring of the urban pipelines, but also to create conditions for the implementation of important operational activities. It is noted that the process of construction of manholes - costly exercise because it requires, in addition to the time and effort, the use of large-block massive structures and specialized equipment.