Meet the house today with the traditional in the past outside toilet facilities it is practically impossible, because most of the hostsprivate houses are trying to organize the first autonomous sewage system, which would ensure them a comfortable stay. Autonomous sewerage allows not only to think about where, how and when to drain the waste, but also helps them to disarm, creating a healthy and clean environment around the house. But before proceeding to the future development of the sewage system of the project must clearly define for themselves how much wastewater will be merged into it in order to avoid problems.
- Classification of sewer systems
- Septic Tank and its equipment
- Calculating the volume and depth of the sump
- The construction of the simplest sewerage
- Autonomous sewer system on the principle of overflow wells
- Independent drainage with the function of bioremediation
Classification of sewer systems
Of course, any drain, it is an autonomous orthere always has its own characteristics. It is impossible to find two identical. For this reason, and to classify them can be infinite. However, there are still some points that make it possible to divide the sewerage system into several types.
- By depending on electricity sewer systems are:
- Volatile autonomous seweragethe system is characterized in that it has a small footprint that allows you to put it even on the smallest area. Thanks to the pump (compressor) all processes take place in it rather quickly. It is the presence of the pump and makes such systems dependent on electricity. Moreover, in addition to regular cleaning, the type of sewage requires quarterly maintenance, which makes them quite expensive.
- Nonvolatile sewage isabsolutely on anything (well, except human, of course) is not dependent system in which all processes are carried out independently, that is gravity. Naturally, cleaning and filtering, in this case lasts considerably longer, and the size of the system much more.
2. In the type:
- structure consisting of overflow wells
- Autonomous sewer system with the function of bioremediation
Septic Tank and its equipment
The easiest type of sewage - is a classicCesspool, which for several centuries has been used successfully not only in Russia but also in other countries. This type of sewage, of course, has undergone significant changes that it went only benefit.
Choose the place before starting construction for cesspoolOnly need to consider that perhaps somepart of the water will still seep into the soil and into the groundwater. So make sure to find out about what you have chosen to place the depth of groundwater.
Important: if the depth of groundwater less than 2 meters, build a cesspool in a given place is impossible.
If you have a septic tank at the well siteit is desirable to be positioned at good distance - ideally at least 30 meters. If the possibility of your site is not as extensive as the place diagonally sewers in order to avoid accidental leakage of harmful waste into clean drinking water.
Calculating the volume and depth of the sump
Any autonomous sewer private house, in theincluding septic tank, it should start with the settlement. For a small family of three or four most optimal volume (if one considers that on the day on one person accounts for about 250 liters of water) is the volume of 1.5 cubic meters. meter.
In any case, even if the volume of the sumpIt is less will require periodic cleaning, i.e. call car for feces disposal. Note also the presence in the house of an automatic washing machine and dishwasher (if, of course), who also contribute quite fast filling the sump.
Another factor that can determine the size ofsewage - the device itself cesspool. If she has an additional absorbent pit, part of waste will go into the ground, which will significantly "increase" its size. When small amounts of such sewerage system does not harm either man or nature.
This absorbing hole is usually smallsize as a function of the mass of sewage accumulation in this case eliminated. However, the soil can cope with only a small amount of waste and decomposition products, if the infiltration of large volumes of it first poisoned herself, and then distributes the action and on the surrounding area and even humans. You can, of course, apply the peat pudrklozet (cushion made of peat. Which is placed on the bottom of the pit), which would eliminate the harmful fecal wastewater component. In this case, in addition to purification of waste water, you get a great compost for the beds.
The construction of the simplest sewerage
The device battery drainage in particular cesspool, simple, but it may take you a lot of time and effort, of course, if you decide to drive to the site heavy machinery.
- The first stage of works - Laying pipes. There is nothing complicated, the main condition which must be observed by all means, - a constant inclination to adhere to 3-5 degrees, so that the water flowed easily and did not arise siltation. Please note only that the longer the pipe, the greater must be the angle of inclination.
- The second stage of work. The walls of the pit carefully aligned and bottom do with a slight slope to the side, where you expect to make a hatch for pumping effluent.
Usually pit digging a square or rectangular shape, sometimes round, but with the size you have defined yourself.
The bottom of the pit is lined with a layer of sand about 15 cm. Over a cushion poured concrete thickness is not less than a layer of sand. After setting concrete on it to do sand-cement screed 4 cm. If you can, you can not bother and just lay on the bottom of the excavated pits finished concrete slab.
The walls of the pit can be put burnt bricks or install it metal or concrete rings, benefit today you can buy anything your heart desires.
- The third stage of work. After all the activities of the Inlandsump arrangement is finished, you can proceed to the construction of floors. They must be made of very strong and robust material, such as thick sleepers or any concrete structures.
From the sides pit should overlap by at least 40-50 cm, and a hatch for pumping wastewater should have dimensions of about 70 * 70 cm.
Autonomous sewerage country houseIt is almost ready, it remains only to complete the job. The finished floor must be properly isolated from the water. To do this, use any waterproofing material such as roofing felt, which is placed on top of the sleepers or plates. Over the roofing material is poured soil, sand, slag (in general, everything that you wish) a layer of about 40 cm.
Be sure to do the cover, which will bereliably protect you from unpleasant odors. Desirably, it has a double - one at ground level, and the second - on the overlap level. In winter, the space between the two covers is filled with slag foam, straw or any other heater, thereby protecting drains from freezing, and you from unnecessary waste of money, time and effort.
If an autonomous sewer with your hands for younot a problem and you are ready for the upcoming works, the sinkhole - the most simple and easy way. To build such a system can be in a week, and most of the time you spend on it to dig itself a hole.
Autonomous sewer system on the principle of overflow wells
This system consists of two wells: the first is a septic tank for the solid waste, and the second - Infiltrator.
The first well is made of concrete ormetal rings with cement bottom or is mounted on the bottom of the hole ready made of plastic septic. Second pit does not have a bottom, and is lined with crushed stone or gravel. Purified by solid elements liquid enters through a pipe into a well absorbable, where he is absorbed into the soil.
In the operation of such a batterysewage should be on a quarterly basis to pump sludge from the first well, otherwise formed stagnation. But it is possible to reduce the number of calls sewage truck to once every six months, if the use of special biological products, splitting the solid fraction.
Application of the system of overflow wellsis only possible for small country houses with a daily volume of waste water is not more than 1500 liters. Large houses and the houses should be equipped with other structures such as sewers with the function of bioremediation.
Independent drainage with the function of bioremediation
Autonomous sewer system with its ownBioremediation is a septic tank station, which includes a large storage tank and the filtration field, collecting all debris and waste. Such drainage at the moment is considered the most modern and efficient, but its cost is much higher than the first two systems described above.
Through bioremediation plant, which may have a chemical, biological or mechanical nature, there is purification of waste water and the accumulation of sediments.
- Chemical waste water treatment method is based onuse of a variety of chemicals that alter the structure of the liquid trapped in a septic tank, the solid state. These elements eventually settle to the bottom of the container. This technology, though, and is suitable for a country house, yet is more common in large industrial enterprises, which clearly complied with the dosage of chemicals.
- Sewage systems with mechanicalself-cleaning can be found in country houses and suburban areas with small volumes of waste water, for example, if the owner of the house lives there permanently, and comes on the way vyhodnye.Takoy device does not require a high financial cost, only need to periodically replace the rubble in the gutters, and occasionally engaged in cleaning the septic tank of solid precipitation.
- The biological method of sewage treatment basedapplying to bacteria that decompose organic and inorganic wastes, converting them into the mud, water and carbon dioxide. Such a system can additionally be equipped with a unit frame and a spare filter mechanism of UV disinfection and drain pump.
Any autonomous sewer, which you reviewscan be found in large numbers in the spaces of the Internet, not only requires careful maintenance and control, but also, above all, high-quality assembly. So be sure to develop a scheme for future sewer system, outline the plan and think how and where it will be located.
This approach to work is sure to bring only positive results.