Radiators (batteries) heating
No heating warmth and comfort in the house is unthinkable, andbattery - an essential element of the heating system. The article will explain the similarities and the differences between modern radiators: how to choose for your home or apartment optimum radiators - effective, energy-saving, do not violate the harmony of the interior.
- Convection or radiation?
- Choosing water radiators
- New variants of the "old" iron
- Sectional radiators made of aluminum
- Bimetallic battery with sections
- Steel panel radiators
Convection or radiation?
It is impossible to say with certainty what the best radiators: when choosing a device should take into account the individual characteristics of the room and the heating system.
All heating radiators viaIt works on a simple principle: heat transfer fluid - water or gas - heated in a boiler and the pipes is supplied to the heater in the room. The heating device is battery heats the room air.
There are two ways of transferring heat from the radiator - convection and radiation.
Convection, natural or forced - israpid heating of the air in contact with the heated surface developed radiators. In forced convection convectors principle of operation is based - heating devices, in which the design of the fan is integrated.
Convectors are able to quickly warmroom, but there are also a significant disadvantage. Active air convection, like a vacuum cleaner, too dry air, and carries a large amount of dust, which is not conducive to a healthy microclimate in the house. Typically, this type of heaters used in problem areas with large glazed areas, where conventional heaters violate the harmony of the interior.
Radiation - a natural air heatingflat surface of the heater - radiator, having an increased heat capacity and temperature. On radiation accounts for about 60% of the thermal energy delivered radiators in the space of the room, and only the remaining 40% comes from natural convection due to the movement of air masses in the room.
Thus, the radiator heating, throughminimum convection hot air, environmentally friendly and most close to the heating stove and underfloor heating. There are also combined radiators - panel radiators, convectors.
Choosing water radiators
The modern market offers few typesradiators (battery) water heating, which differ in size, weight, capacity of heat transfer, heat loss value, material of manufacture and design. So before you choose a radiator, you need to specify the priority for your house or apartment settings, and depending on them to pick one or the other type of radiator.
It is important to remember:
- Power radiators are selected based on the following standard heating the room: 100 watts per square meter room with one eye and one outer wall.
- For a room with two windows and two exterior walls to the rated capacity should be added a further 30%.
- If the radiators are closed with decorative panels, to power the resulting value will have to add another 15%.
- Also at 5-10% is added to the calculated valuethermal power batteries if they are located in niches or rooms windows face north or northeast. In case of coincidence of several factors summarize the additional interest.
In modern heating systems cottages and apartments, the following types of radiators, characterized by the material of manufacture:
- cast iron;
Design features of water heating radiators are represented by two groups:
- Sectional - a cast-iron, aluminum and bimetal radiators;
- panel - they are steel radiators.
New variants of the "old" iron
Reliability and practicality cast iron radiators well-known domestic customers. They are distinguished by high corrosion and abrasion resistance, and are at least 50 years. In heating systems with low-quality coolant question "what to choose radiators" almost not worth it: the answer will be in favor of the cast iron radiators
Ideal for cast iron radiatorsheating systems for solid fuels. Thanks to the thick walls, large sections of the tank (1.4 l) and the physical properties of iron they are able to accumulate a large amount of heat and provide space heating in the gaps between the solid fuel boiler loads.
Cast iron radiators, mainly designed forsystem pressure 6-9 atm and the maximum flow temperature to 130 ° C, but they differ in the specific heat due to the high thermal inertia of large: long heat up and cool down the room slowly.
Because of this feature, they are not suitable for heating systems equipped with automatic, as will not be able to provide, for example, the heating mode with daytime temperatures of 22 ° C and night - 17 ° C.
Sectional radiators made of aluminum
Spectacular design, light, less heat,but quickly extending to the space heat sectional radiators of aluminum - a worthy alternative to cast iron inertia brethren. Ribbing around the main channels enhances the natural convection of air in them, so that in the aluminum battery is almost does not accumulate dust, and quick-response heaters of this type allows you to quickly change the temperature in accordance with the management teams of thermostats.
However, along with indisputable advantages,there is a drawback that should be considered before you select the right heating radiators of aluminum. The fact that aluminum is sensitive to the quality of water in the heating system, the optimum acidity of pH indicator should comply 7-8. The rate of electrochemical corrosion of aluminum affect stray currents in the building, part of the additives to reduce the hardness of the water of oxygen, as well as the installation of aluminum radiators in one system with copper and steel components and pipes.
To prevent damagingelectrochemical reactions, it is recommended to use special insulating adapters in the joints of aluminum sections with copper or steel pipes and fittings. Undesirable also for radiators in aluminum typical of the Russian urban heating systems, pressure drops, but some manufacturers eliminate this disadvantage, starting issue aluminum radiators with operating pressures up to 16 atm.
Bimetallic battery with sections
For those who have not decided yet which battery to chooseheating, as cast iron or aluminum, for various parameters do not come, it is necessary to look at the elegant and powerful bimetallic sectional radiators. Heaters of this type are structurally represent a system of vertical steel tubes, filled with suppressed outside a special aluminum alloy. As a result, bimetallic battery, due to the physical properties of the steel, perfectly maintained high pressure coolant and resist corrosion, while aluminum surface conducts heat well and quickly heats the room.
Bimetallic radiators are designed forinternal coolant operating pressure of 25 bar and are free from the disadvantages of cast iron and aluminum counterparts, but they have a small disadvantage - reduced volume of circulating water, due to the small cross-section (of 12-15 mm) internal steel tubes. To quickly heat the room and then maintain optimum temperature in the system must constantly at a high speed to circulate the coolant, which may be accompanied by a characteristic whistling heads thermostats.
Steel panel radiators
As the thermal conductivity of steel panel radiatorsyou can put between the iron and aluminum counterparts. Make panel battery of corrosion-resistant sheet steel and structurally they are a series of parallel vertical channels united horizontal collector. They come in single, double and three-row, with or without ribbing him, and the outer panels are covered by a heat-resistant multi-layer enamel.
Steel radiators are calculated on working pressure6.10 atm and the maximum flow temperature to 120 ° C. Compared with cast-iron battery panel radiator made of steel is characterized by high energy-saving properties: it is able to give as much as cast-iron battery, heat, using his 7 times less water with a temperature of 20 ° C below. Besides it, thanks to the developed heat exchange surface, quickly heats the room, so it does not heat consumption for heating itself.
Steel panel radiator is characterized by largeCompared with analog bimetallic internal volume and without the need for continuous circulation of the coolant exceeds it. The disadvantage of steel panel radiators is their short lifespan - no more than 15 years.
When deciding how to choose the right radiator,must take into account the place of installation, the floor area, the quality of the coolant in the heating system. So, for example, equipped with automatic stand-alone heating systems cottages are like steel panel radiators, and if the equipment is not provided - good iron. For apartments in new high-rise buildings with high blood pressure and poor water quality in heating systems are ideal bimetallic battery. If the quality of the water in the apartment heating system is satisfactory, you can stop the choice on aluminum batteries, making sure that the system pressure does not exceed the value of the device passport. If an older heating system the apartment in need of renovation, replacement of cast iron, steel panels on the panel help to reduce energy consumption.