What are the requirements to all peopletimes to his dwelling? Of course, the warmth and comfort - the main aspects of this issue. To argue with this opinion is meaningless, because no argument can not prove otherwise. High levels of these parameters can provide efficient heating system. Yes, it is effective, why wasted on substandard instruments, equipment and materials. We live in a new century, and it makes its own rules and laws, and a person must meet them. For the full functioning of the coolant are required pipes for heating: what to choose, if today assortment of diverse and multi-faceted? Try to understand.
- Basic requirements for the heating pipes
- What influences the choice of pipes
- Dependence on the heating system
- Calculation of pipe diameter
- Types of pipes for heating: which is better?
- Metal-plastic - a universal solution
- Copper tubes - old traditions
- Steel - the best option for budget
- Stainless steel - a wide range of applications
- Plastic pipes - new heating pipes from the new technology plastic CPVC
Basic requirements for the heating pipes
Undoubtedly, in the integrated pipe heating systemplay an important role. It can be said that their function is extremely responsible, because it is a pipe delivering hot water from the boiler (regardless of its kind) to the radiators. Based on this argument, you can define the primary requirements for pipes: they must be durable and maintain this characteristic over the entire lifetime. A tube for continuous service should not pass oxygen as this contributes to rust from the inside of the system, and clogged pipes and "overrun." This reduces the productivity of the whole system.
From the tightness of the system depends on maintainingthe optimal temperature conditions, as well as a person should be confident in the reliability of the pipe, that the coolant does not go beyond the contour of the pipe and not spoil the materials and equipment, which is nearby. Strength properties are largely determined by the material of construction of one or the other tube. The modern market offers a lot of options, but you need to soberly assess the situation and consider all the details, so as not to be in a force majeure situation, especially in winter. After failures in the heating system during the cold season are not wanted and are undesirable.
Quiet - no less significant factor. Calm and cozy atmosphere in the house will be broken wildness constant current of water. And yet, the beautiful aesthetic pipe also has not been canceled. It is not always possible to hide the wiring in the wall, for example, if the house is wooden. But in other cases where some pipes yet come to the surface and connected to the radiators.
heating circuit pipes is mandatoryprocedure must comply with the above requirements in each particular case, since the choice of pipes depends also on some indicators about them, and now it will go.
What influences the choice of pipes
When choosing pipes for heating is necessary to pay attention to the following points:
- gasket type - external or hidden;
- average coolant temperature and pressure in the heating system;
- Installation - simple or complex configuration of the system;
- the location of the pipeline - in the case where part of the pipeline will pass through the room which is not heated, then you need to consider options for insulation;
- possibility of carrying out, if necessary, repair the pipes and, more importantly, good access to them.
The thing is that the tubes are made of different materials, and thus have a particular installation gasket, assembly systems and performance.
Dependence on the heating system
Probably everyone knows that there are two of the mostthe main heating system: centralized and individual. Naturally, the tube must meet particular system, such as in private homes and cottages system equipped on an individual basis: the pressure in the pipes in this case does not exceed 2.3 atmospheres.
And in the central heating system whichIt used in urban high-rise buildings, perhaps 16 bar pressure. Basically, these high rates are achieved during system startup to clean the pipeline from slugging.
We must now look in detail at the possibility of using different types of pipes in these heating systems. Basically, there are four types of pipes:
- reinforced - suitable for both heating systems because they are designed to pressure 25 atmospheres;
- polypropylene pipes are best suited for an individual system, as they are only designed for 6-10 atmospheres;
- metallooplastikovye pipes are used in the individual, and the central system. They are durable and resistant to corrosion;
- steel pipe is more common incentralized heating systems. But if a weld joint, not threaded, the pipes are more exposed to corrosion of the pipe and the protective layer is destroyed.
If we talk about the system of the naturalcirculation and floor boilers, it is difficult to do without the metal pipes. in this case Value / diameter is optimal, because the cost of 1.5 inch copper or composition pipe and similar of "black" steel differ significantly.
In fact, in the system of water supply system "black"metal pipe rust quickly, but it does not apply to the central heating system. Water coolant that is circulated in a pipe for a long time, oxygen evaporates rapidly and the system is made of steel pipes, is 50 years.
When using the wall with a copper boilerheat exchanger in combination with circulation pump, ie pump, steel pipes will only interfere. Firstly, the system is constructed of such pipes, does not look very aesthetically pleasing, well, at the initial stage of corrosion thin coil can become clogged. In addition, the price of installation of "black" pipe is not too different from the cost of the equipment system made of plastic and copper.
Modern heating systems differ fromthe former, therefore, steel pipes, so to speak, now no longer in vogue. Often, the steel pipe is advantageous to use when required mechanical strength and large diameters.
Important: as they are suitable for the replacement of "black" pipe, that's just a choice, it is desirable to stop on a galvanized version.
Calculation of pipe diameter
To create a full-fledged heating systemYou should be familiar with the theory, in particular the principle of calculating the appropriate diameter pipes. When wiring pipes, this parameter is very important, the correct calculation helps to avoid unnecessary heat loss and energy consumption wasted.
Pipe diameter - the size of which determines itsdimensions; independent calculation can spend, you need to know some details: the inner diameter fittings, fitting, and the nominal rate of internal diameter and wall thickness. For example, increasing the diameter of which is used to increase the heat transfer area, certainly leads to heat loss and pressure drop.
diameter calculation is made on the variousformulas and schemes, traditionally peculiar inch system is used for measurement. Calculation of the diameter depends on many factors: the pressure in a dilution tunnel, the composition and quality of the coolant. All formulas are difficult to remember, so it's best to go the easy way and use the table clearing, everything is clearly stated, and the parameters of coolant, and the circuit layout of pipes, and the characteristics of heating devices.
You can make a correct conclusion, that ignoredcalculation is not necessary, as each particular system is tied to the instruments used, and uses a specific coolant (water, antifreeze, artificial coolant), and also takes into account the way the circulation in the heating system.
Types of pipes for heating: which is better?
The heating system of steel pipes and cast iron radiators It has lost its leading position and gave the palmsuperiority to other materials and technologies. This is not surprising, after all, life and science does not stand still, they are constantly moving forward. So how to choose the pipe for heating their abode, and so was the quality and reasonable price, and economy of the family budget? Now let's deal with this issue.
Metal-plastic - a universal solution
This effective combination of properties of plastic andmetal pipes. This great harmony is possible thanks to the specific design: the pipe consists of a base made of aluminum alloy, which is covered with high-density polyethylene. This outer layer is characterized by high resistance to aggressive environments.
Typically, metal-plastic pipes are widelyused as a hot water supply and a floor and radiator systems. Their main distinguishing feature - a small coefficient of thermal expansion, it allows for the installation significantly increase the distance between the supports in the case of their use can be dispensed with compensators.
The design of multilayer pipe has a number of advantages:
- 100 per cent impermeability of gas;
- High throughput;
- Excellent resistance to tearing;
- Aesthetic appearance, easy to fit into the interior of the premises;
- Long service life;
- Low installation costs;
- The possibility bezsvarochnogo compounds;
- Great flexibility;
- Not corrode.
But there are also some disadvantages:
- Under the influence of ultraviolet radiation of metal and plastic pipes are destroyed.
Important: To stop this process, it is necessary in the areas of influence of wear special protection, ie corrugated pipe.
- Selection limit diameters.
This type of pipe is connected by means of threaded or compression fittings by gluing.
Copper tubes - old traditions
Copper - material for pipes, which is actively used since the late 17th century until today. This trend is not surprising, as this is a good option for autonomous heating.
For the manufacture of such pipes used copperOnly high-quality, almost no impurities, so the copper pipe is characterized by toughness and high corrosion resistance. Sometimes the surface is covered with PVC pipe or polyethylene layer. This measure has a positive effect on reducing heat losses when the hot water flows through the pipes, as well as no condensation in the cold water supply and improving the appearance. Copper pipes are rigid and soft.
Copper pipes have advantages:
- Good thermal conductivity;
- Corrosion strength;
- Bactericidal effect;
- An excellent operating temperature range: -200 - + 200 °;
- When pressures and freezing systems are resistant to tearing;
- High rate of throughput, because the inner surface is very smooth;
- Impermeability to oxygen;
- Durability (100 years);
- Aesthetic appearance.
Well, the only negative on the background of significant advantages - high cost.
Steel - the best option for budget
Until recently, steel pipes rest onchampionship laurels, but the old days have passed, today they are much less popular. Just before there was no alternative, and now it is available.
In terms of mechanical strength and smallpercent expansion of steel pipes do not have worthy opponents in heating and steam heating. High thermal conductivity is the main criterion for creating a radiant water heating form.
But there are disadvantages, and they are significant: steel pipe corrosion, to protect them, you can apply the technique galvanizing. This option is the most ideal for residential use. More data pipes are heavy and inconvenient to use because of headroom. A montage involves the use of gas welding. But if the human aspect of the choice of the main advocates pricing, it is an optimal solution.
Stainless steel - a wide range of applications
Such pipes are made of stainless steeland worthy of attention. For proper operation of the pipe made of stainless steel with more than pays for the initial cost. Their main advantage - corrosion resistance and durability. This is not a "black" pipe, which are oxidized and become clogged with rust, it's pipe, though expensive, but cost-effective. Their use does not have to once again acquire and change the fittings, valves, cranes and the like, while berating unscrupulous manufacturers.
In addition, the application range of stainless steel tubes impressive "warm floors and walls," binding boilers and many other areas. Savings on the face, it is better to spend money once, and then enjoy the resulting benefits.
Plastic pipes - new technologies
These pipes must be chosen carefully and with great responsibility, because the reliability and durability of the heating system depends on their quality.
Plastic pipes are produced at the presentequipment, advances in science and the new uses in the production process. As a result, the output is a product that meets building codes and standards. These tubes not only reliable, but also cheaper to assemble. For him, do not need any expensive equipment, and further maintenance works do not require large cash investments. It should be noted that plastic pipes maintain their performance over the entire service life, and yet they are not subjected to adverse chemical or physical manifestations.
heating system, which is based onthe use of such pipes can be easily repaired and beautiful decoration materials, so that in this respect there are pluses. With plastic pipes can without any problems to implement complex projects, because their service life more than 20 years.
To fit all heating pipes, as mentioned above, simply by choosing a need to think rationally, and to keep up with reality.