Fireplaces with their hands
People have always loved fire. In older homes fireplaces were an integral part. And this tradition today, oddly enough, is reborn! When planning the construction of the house, there is the question of how to build a home? The hosts, who have even minimal experience in construction, fireplaces can build with their own hands. We invite you to look into the matter, having considered every aspect of the building separately.
- Construction and operation of the fireplace
- What you need to consider when building
- Choosing a place for a home
- We hope the future size of the fireplace
- Prepare material for masonry fireplace
- Fill a solid foundation
- Preparation of the material before laying
- The technological process of the masonry fireplace
- To construct the firebox, smoke box and channels
- Design - an important step
Construction and operation of the fireplace
The fireplace is called a simple oven with an open furnace that heats the room radiant heat energy. The product consists of a firebox and chimney.
Inside it are building a bent gas thresholda knee that hinders ejection from the tube and prevents sparks air flow changes, which lead to shoot out ash, fuming, ingress of rain water and snow and also required for soot deposition.
In colder areas of the country fireplaces can not be used as a heating device, so that the heat output is 10 - 20%, and the rest of the energy goes into the pipe.
Fireside generate heat during combustionlogs, moreover, unevenly. Heated air is best in front of the firebox. But with the sides slightly warmed. To better reflect the heat to do the firebox wide but not deep.
What you need to consider when building
the simplest fireplace is brick, Its owners can fold themselves. By the hearth and home imposed some requirements. Fireplace must not smoke, but just have a good warm air. Also worth noting is its aesthetic properties.
The first point to which you should payattention is the choice of the project. If you have decided to make the fireplace with his hands - the drawings should be chosen carefully! Next you need to determine what will be the focus - a closed or an open one, and what materials will be used in construction.
Choosing a place for a home
Fireplaces operate in and attached to a brick wall,built into it or free-standing. You can also place the focus in the corner by the interior walls. If you want to see as much as possible options should perform a web search for «fireplaces with his hands photo".
It is not desirable to place the furnace wall, thatthe opposite wall with windows: If the window is not too compacted, then erecting them in front of the fireplace will create drafts. If the house is made of wood, it is necessary to take into account the fire regulations, because if the fireplace to heat for too long, it may cause a fire.
When designing a fireplace, it is worth remembering that therechimney section of which must correspond to the size of the fire. It is necessary to organize the flow of fresh air into the room where the fireplace is located, and a platform that is able to withstand the weight of the structure.
We hope the future size of the fireplace
Fireplace Design There are two methods - choose ready poryadovuyu scheme masonry fireplace or draw it yourself using the table sizes. To make poryadovkoy, you need to prepare a paper in the box. Apply and have a brick, and three-quarters, and halves.
Before you make a fire with his own hands,necessary to determine the area of the room in which it is planned to build a fireplace. Furnace hole should be 1/50 of the volume of the room. In the depth of the firebox and the height of the portal must be maintained the ratio of 1 to 2 or 2 to 3.
The dimensions must be observed without failas they are very important. If we make the furnace deeper than expected, the heat transfer is significantly reduced, and if made smaller, it will provoke a smoke.
From flue openings depend primarilyheating area. Dimensions of the chimney must be at every 8 - 15 less than the size of the furnace. If you want to make a round chimney, it is worth remembering that the pipe diameter should be in the range of 8 - 14 centimeters. chimney can be up to 4 - 5 meters.
Prepare material for masonry fireplace
Since all ready poryadovkoy, you can build a home or fireplace in the garden with his own hands.
It is necessary to determine the necessary materials and their amount:
- Full-bodied furnace bricks. They should be considered individually. It is recommended to consider all the partial products as a whole bricks.
- Sand without debris and dust, which is differentfineness close 0.2 - 1.5 mm. To remove dirt, sand should be placed in the water and to insist, changing the water several times, until it acquires a light shade.
- Clay for putting some foci. It is recommended to use the blue Cambrian clay. If a material in your area is not present, you can take and clay furnace.
- Cement. Suitable very ordinary Portland cement.
- Crushed for the solution and fill the basement under the hearth.
- Reinforcing bars - about 20 pieces. Diameter of not more than 8 - 10 mm, length -. 700 mm.
- Smoke damper.
Fill a solid foundation
How to fold a fireplace with your hands, you need todo first? Building fire should start with the foundation and determining its size. The foundation of the hearth must be built on the foundation of the house separately. It must have the same width as the ground and the front row can thus add 5 - 6 centimeters.
First you need to dig a hole the size of which will belarger dimensions of the foundation 10 - 15 centimeters. The depth of the pit - about 60 centimeters. The foundation can be constructed from foam concrete or brick. It is better to calculate what kind of material will be cheaper, and check out what is available. At the bottom of the rubble taken to fall asleep. Then tamped the hole and check the levelness of the base.
Then you can take the foundation. It is necessary to bring down the required formwork height without the bottom using wooden planks. The inner walls of the box should handle the resin or upholster for waterproofing roofing material. Formwork must be placed on the base and fill with gravel stones, arranged in advance, the solution, which is prepared from 1 part cement and 3 parts sand.
top of the basement is properly leveled, to make amends for all the irregularities, check levels, and cover with polythene. It is necessary to wait a week, and only then proceed to the brickwork.
Preparation of the material before laying
Brick has dimensions - 6.5 by 12 by 25 cm, and the seam- About half a centimeter. Bricks must be flat, solid, uniform in thickness and without chips. Before laying should be podtesat, trim emery stone or brick of another plane.
Each brick is first necessary to omit a few minutes in the water to come out all the bubbles. Otherwise brick in the solution will take away moisture, and this will provoke the instability of masonry.
On the foundation necessary to spread a layer 2roofing waterproofing. Then perform calibration of bricks, in other words - choose from the material only the bricks that are needed for the construction. 2-3 days should be soaked clay, gradually adding water and stirring until thickened.
The technological process of the masonry fireplace
Above it was indicated that under this schemefireplaces are built with his own hands made of brick. Bricks should be clearly laid on top of each other. Side brick, which is in contact with the rail, during a procedure such as masonry fireplaces with their hands must not be in solution.
Brick laid so he placed one hand on the rail, which is slightly pressed with the other hand nailed to the brick mortar. The clay thus should not squeeze the rail.
The first row should be laid on the edge of the solution,adding cement. During operation, should be very careful and check the geometrical dimensions of the fireplace with the help of the polygon. All diagonal to each other should be equal angles - vertical, each row - horizontal well.
Solid ranks better spread usingtools - trowel or trowel. When masonry firebox and the sweeping operation to be performed hands, as this can be felt with a solution to eliminate accidentally hit the stones.
Rows should be checked with poryadovymi schemesmarking pencil or chalk all ranks. Facing the firebox to the outer walls are not bound, as in these cases, different temperature regimes and masonry can be broken because of this.
Reiki after laying several rows are deleted,however, they can be used later. The third row is to lay two pins, which need to be put on the fender. The side projections of the portal are placed immediately clean - in a half-brick. Seams can be filled after laying a colored solution if desired - with the addition of dry pigments.
To construct the firebox, smoke box and channels
The walls of the firebox and the sweeping to wipe the inside and remove the solution was speaking. It is necessary to remember that the inside can not grout.
The curved surface and the sweeping archit is recommended to spread, making a gradual overlap bricks - up to 6 centimeters. Gantry hole should overlap the brick webs, which are of different types - arched, vaulted and canted. Jumpers are installed using special molds.
While putting some attention is to focus oncheck the verticality of the chimney. When will reupload the chimney on the roof, it is necessary to go to the cement-sand mixture. When laying the pipe for closing the roof membrane, made to establish "otter" (overlap), and to provide fire protection ceilings - hazard.
To fire showed the best heat-reflectivecapacity, it is necessary to make the inside wall at an angle. Both side panels must expand outward, and the back - slightly tilted forward. Above the combustion chamber is to arrange a smoke chamber, firing chamber between the flue and firebox ledge. Pass out prevents soot sparks fly, and also protects the room from getting smoke.
Design - an important step
Now that you know how to build your fireplacehands, and you can start decorating. Built center can issue any building materials - marble, tiles, tiles, different types of stone and brick, decorative plaster. More often used in the finishing of concrete imitation different textures - mostly expensive natural stone and wood, since these materials are expensive.
First decorative details obkladyvaetsyathe ground floor of a home. Use accepted normal tile adhesive. Some products, for example, made of marble decorations, you need to pre-pasted plastic, because this material is very easily scratched.
In the design of the fireplace, you can use differentkind of forged elements - such as iron sculpture. But wooden crafts desirable very well insulated from the heat source. But above all, these accessories should be appropriate in general interior.
So, after reading this manual, you canbuild a fireplace with his hands. It is necessary to strictly follow the guidelines and check with all poryadovymi schemes. Particular attention should be paid to the selection of sites for future focus and estimated its size as it affects the performance of your work.