Electrics

Wiring your own hands: Requirements, types and wiring diagram

Wiring your own hands

Today it is hard to imagine a comfortable life withoutelectricity, and a sudden power failure in the apartment or house is becoming a big problem. To avoid this trouble, you need to purchase a further stage of apartment or house to pay close attention to the wiring. And in case of unsatisfactory results inspection to do the work on its installation. All works can meet experienced professionals, but those who are used to doing everything he can perform wiring by hand. The main thing is to know the rules and the installation of electrical wiring requirements and have an idea what to do.

Content

  • Wiring Regulations
  • Prevenient installation training
  • Installation of hidden power
  • Installation of outdoor wiring

Wiring Regulations

Through the work on laying the cables, it is necessarystrictly abide by all the requirements of the installation wiring. Failure or half-measures in this kind of work can have very dire consequences. Here is a list of basic rules that must be followed:

  • counters, branching boxes, switches and sockets should be in easily accessible locations;
  • breakers must be installed at a height of 65- 80 cm or 1.5 m above the floor. In the first case it is done for the convenience of children, in the second - for adults. Also, the switches must be in all areas near the doorway, in the place where the door does not close access to them;
  • outlet should be placed at a height of 0.5 - 0.8 mfrom the floor. Do not place them near the plinth in order to avoid short-circuit, if the room is flooded with water. The distance from the outlet to the gas or electric stoves, radiators, pipes or other grounded objects must be at least 50 cm. In the calculation of the number of outlets should proceed from the fact that the 6 m2 premises set 1 socket. Kitchen number of outlets is calculated based on the planned number of household appliances. The toilet installation of sockets is prohibited, and for the outlets in the bathroom need to install an isolation transformer outside the bathroom.
  • laying wiring in the walls is conducted vertically and horizontally, and their location to be displayed on the floor plan wiring;
  • when horizontal lining is necessary to sustaina distance of 50 - 100 mm from the eaves and beams and 150 mm from the ceiling. The height of the skirting boards should be 150 - 200 mm. With vertical laying of the distance to the doorways or windows must be at least 100 mm;
  • wires must not come into contact with metal constructions. The distance from the gas pipes should be at least 400 mm;
  • wiring harness, and it needs itperform in special boxes and bare ends must be carefully insulated. It should be remembered that a compound of aluminum and copper wires with each other is prohibited;
  • Wire to ground zero and protective conductors need to be attached to the instrument by means of a bolted joint.

Prevenient installation training

The layout of wiring in the apartment

Example wiring diagram

Like any other domestic work, installationWiring must begin with a preparatory phase. And the first thing that is required for the successful execution of work - is a scheme of wiring installation. To do this, you can contact the experts, and for a fee, they draw a diagram of the wiring harness in the room, or do it all yourself. You can do this on paper to draw a floor plan and place it on display wiring, installation locations of sockets, junction boxes, panel and note the installation location lighting.

Individual protection means

For twisting and wire insulation can be used PPE (personal protective equipment)

By creating a simple plan you can immediately calculate the required number of cables or wires, outlets, switches, and other things.

To be precise, for Wiringneed the following materials: lighting panel, differential automatic or RCD, wire, Enclosures, distribution boxes, switches, sockets, corrugated, duct or cable - channels, terminals for wire connections and Siza, electrical tape and a variety of fasteners (clips, anchor - nails, screws).

Important! When calculating the amount of cable you need to remember two things. Firstly, do not forget to include in the total length of all the branches on the walls of the sockets, switches and light points. Second, add to the resulting length of the extra couple of meters, as it is necessary to do the release wire 10 - 15 cm in the socket mounting points, switches and lighting fixtures. Everything else, this is a small reassurance in case of errors during installation.

Particular attention should be paid to the wire. When you select a preference for copper wire core. Copper is more durable, better conductor of electricity, flexible. Among the variety would be required for the installation of the following types of cables:

  • VVG-5 * 6. This cable with five conductors with a cross section of 6 mm2 is perfect for those who installed a three-phase power.
  • VVG-2 * 6. This two-wire cable has a cross-section of 6 mm2. They are connecting shields V.R.U. to shield light.
  • VVG-3 * 2.5. This three-core wire of 2.5 mm2. It is used for the main part of the panel wiring to and from raspredkorobok raspredkorobok to outlets.
  • VVG-3 * 1.5. This three-conductor wire with a cross section of 1.5 mm2 is used for installation of the junction box to the light switches and points.
Machines

The most common machines off at 16 A and 20 A

With regard to the machines, then it is possible to stopWith its 16 A and 20 A machine. First - 16 A - perfect for lighting, and the second - 20 A - for sockets. There is automatic at 25 A, but it is not recommended to put older homes and older wiring, since it can not work at high load, and the wiring can not endure.

Important! For each section of the wire has its own allowable load. In our case, for wire 3 * 1.5 VVG fit machines 16 A and 20 A. For VVG-wire 3 * 2.5 must be installed machines 20 A and 25 A.

Now you need to decide on the wayinstallation, it can be recessed or surface mounting. If you apply for concealed installation, then you have to pick up the hammer or grinders and done very dusty work on shtroblenie walls. An open installation is much simpler: the wire is fixed to the wall with special clips, anchor - nails, boxes or cable - channels. Of course, this is not always aesthetically pleasing, but with this method of installation, you can always get a free access to the wiring. Before carrying out work on the installation in the premises is necessary to remove all the extra to get free access to the walls, floors and ceiling. Wiring hidden way is best done before any finishing work and surface mounting can be made at the end of all the works.

Grooves in walls

Grooves run horizontally or vertically

To pave Stroebe, you must firstapplied to the surface of walls, ceiling and concrete floor marking in accordance with previously established wiring plan. Then, using the punch, or grinder to cut the groove - Stroebe. Fitting locations Enclosures and raspredkorobok cut with a special attachment to the punch - the crown. For pulling wires between rooms are drilling holes in the walls with a diameter 2 - 3 mm larger than the diameter of the wire.

For those who do not have the right skills forinstallation, better to turn to specialists. Today, prices for wiring are high and depend on the number of rooms, types of work and the number of points of the installation of lighting fixtures, outlets and switches. All work can cost from 300 US dollars to 700 USD But you can do it yourself if you want to implement the recommendations set out below.

Installation of hidden power

Hidden wiring

For concealed wiring in the walls are made Stroebe

The first thing to do is to install andconnect the lighting panel, RCD or dif machines. These simple tools will save you from short circuits and power surges. Typically, such a shield is installed at the entrance to an apartment in a special niche, but it can also be hung on the wall. To connect you must first determine its location. If it is half, then it is necessary to drill holes for fixing it if the planned special niche, then simply put there all the necessary equipment and fix them. The new houses are usually made a niche, and it held a wire VVG-2 * 6 or VVG-5 * 6. You have to make a connection to the old houses on their own, pre-drilled hole in the wall and handing him a wire.

Now connect the previously purchased machines. We set them in the box and fix them, and then connect the wires. Standard shield as follows:

  • top terminals are zero,
  • at the bottom of the grounding,
  • Machines are set in the middle.

First, we clean the induction wire and attachthe blue wire to zero, yellow with a green stripe to ground, and the white wire to the top terminal on the machine, and there put the jumper to the upper contact of the adjacent machine. VVG-3 * 2.5 Wires that go into the room, connect as follows: phase (color can be brown, red or other storage) are connected to the bottom of the machine terminal. Zero and attachable ground as well as in the lead-in wire.

Dash lighting for installation of two machines

It looks like an ordinary light shield with an Automatic

Important! For the wiring that goes into the room, not to do the jumper. As for the sockets, switches and light points will have their own machines, which are powered by a common cable. In the case where the plate is mounted to the RCD phase and zero lead-in wire connected to the RCD and from there go to the machine and the zero terminal.

Now you can proceed to the installation of hiddenwiring. It should be noted immediately that the hidden installation method applies laying wires for cutting grooves, voids in floors, under floor covering, plaster and wiring under the drywall. Laying on the wiring Stroebe carried out as follows:

  • The previously made Stroebe laid wires, so that they do not protrude over the edge. If necessary, slightly expand Stroebe.
  • From SHCHO raspredkorobok to pave cable VVG-3 * 2.5.
  • The same cables are led by raspredkorobok to outlets.
  • For points of lighting and paving breakers VVG-wire 3 * 1.5 of raspredkorobok to the connection point.
Option wiring in junction box

Wires are connected to each other in the junction box

Installing the Escutcheon

Enclosures installed in a special niche, and then connect the wire

If you plan to sheathe the walls of plasterboard space, then you can not do Stroebe.

All wiring is laid for the plasterboardsheets. stacking principle is the same, but more importantly, there are significant differences - all the wires are in the corrugation and then fit into place for mounting clips were used to the wall.

Wiring under the floor

Wiring harness under the floor - a very convenient option

For those who want to save a little, thereto take advantage of wiring in the floor. So it does not have to bend around corners and walls, and just stretch the wires directly to the right room. In this embodiment, it is worth noting the need for vertical shtrobleniya wall sockets, switches and light fixtures. Also all the wiring is put in the corrugation.

Important! If you have planned for each group of devices or a room on one or more machines, then when laying cables should be marked in a certain way, otherwise you may get confused.

Closing cutting grooves with a mixture based on plaster

Most often Stroebe are sealed alabaster

Now, when the main wires are routed and theiryou must have a junction box and connect to a single network. To do this, we clean the ends of the wire and twisting together. All the bare ends must be insulated. You can use electrical tape or use SiZom that much easier and more efficient.

Insulated wire ends firmly pressedinside the box, and the box lid. The wiring tester check for damage or improper connections. At the final stage close up Stroebe wiring alabaster. It remains to replace the sockets, switches, lighting devices, then you can contact the public utilities. For connection to the power board will need to call an electrician, so he turned off the electricity and connected to the meter.

Installation of outdoor wiring

Wiring open way

Cabling in the plinth with the cable - channel refers to a method of open

This mounting method is used, if athouse, apartment or other premises can not be or can not be done for concealed installation. To implement the open wiring using special boxes or cable - channels. All of these materials are purchased based on the total square footage wiring, as all cables and wires are hidden and stacked in boxes. SCHO Installation and connection is carried out just as described above. The very process of installation is as follows:

  • according to the wiring plan, outline the place wiring;
  • zasverlivaem holes for dowels and screws in increments of 0.5 m;
  • put in place a box or cable - channels and fasten them to the wall with screws;
  • in places of installation of sockets, switches, lighting fixtures zasverlivaem holes;
  • install sockets and switches, fixing them with screws. For lighting on the ceiling using special hooks on the walls - a special fasteners;
  • by analogy with concealed installation in joints of wires raspredkoroba use, and for wiring - Siza;
  • Tester check for damage or errors, and close the box with the wiring covers;
  • for connection to the electricity grid call an electrician in the housing.

For an intelligent host wiringwith his own hands is not much difficulty. The main thing is to carry out all gradually and carefully. The slightest mistake can be very costly, but if you try, you can save a very good amount of money in the installation of electrical wiring.

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