As soon as there is a question about how toreplace the wiring in the house, the first thoughts that attend: a wiring diagram looks like in this house? How is the wiring? After all, in different houses, it can be done in different ways, based on the material of the walls and ceilings, as well as the construction of old. To perform high quality work to repair, replace, or laying new wiring, you will need the circuit wiring in the house. It should be read with them in the first place, or create new ones, if the situation so requires.
- Methods of wiring,
- The modern version of the wiring
- The circuit wiring in a private home
- Calculation of electrical wiring in the house Electricity
Methods of wiring,
In those days, when the typical panel builthome, did not provide the use of such a large number of high-power electrical appliances in each apartment, as is happening now. Therefore, the wiring harness in the house was made for unacceptable for modern life scheme.
First, aluminum was introductory cablesingle insulation. If the apartments were provided gas cookers, then the cross section of this cable was 2.5 mm2. In order to provide a plurality of mnogomoschnyh consumers, such as a refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner, microwave oven, electric heater, - it is not enough. If, however, provided for the installation of electric stoves in the apartments, then was brought cable 4 mm2, which is already much better. But again, the lead-in cable material - aluminum, and it heats up very quickly. In modern houses instead use full copper wire.
Second, the wiring layout was done byrooms. From the panel - automatic cable differed by individual groups. For example, such a "corridor - bathroom - kitchen", "House" and "electric". The cross section of group of wires is 2.5 mm2 wires are made of aluminum, and automatic face value - 16 amperes. And here "swim" a few problems:
- To date, use aluminum cables less than 16 mm2 is prohibited.
- Single insulation of old cables is unacceptable because of overheating, they can ignite.
- This wiring scheme is not able to provideoperation of all electrical appliances. The fact that the chain does not have to share the rooms, and consumers. For example, a separate cable for stiralki, separate for air conditioning, separate - for electric cookers, with separate - for sockets, lighting network.
Immediately apartment wiring can divorce in several ways.
First option. Posting odds on the floor in special cutting grooves - grooves which has a factory concrete slab. Please note, not vyshtroblennaya puncher and executed in production. Top fit on the wooden floor joists. On the walls of the wiring rises or hidden grooves, or on top of the plate and is hidden with plaster. On the ceiling is likely fixed in the same manner. Or passes through the hole in the slab. Enclosures with - external. This wiring can be replaced, though, and will have to tinker.
The second option. Wiring to the outlets diverges on the floor, as in the first version. And the wiring to the lighting network is embedded in the screed of the floor of the upper floor. When replacing this option, the cable leading to the lighting fixtures will have to be "opened" and then hidden in plaster, and on the ceiling - for the plasterboard suspended ceiling.
Important! Making the change of the wiring in the model prefabricated homes, keep in mind that the Resolution of the Moscow Government № 508-PP dated 25.10.2011 prohibited Stroebe device in the wall panels and floor slabs for placement of wiring. In this case, you can perform cabling only open way into the cable - channel or conduit.
At arrangement of wiring in the old pre-fabricated house is the most appropriate to make a new scheme to replace all the wiring and copper wire and install the machines.
Important! If the house is so old that it the power cable that is suitable to the shield flat, has no ground wire, and you completely replace the wiring in an apartment on a modern three-phase, grounding will not work.
The modern version of the wiring
All new buildings and houses that have passedRepair the wiring, the opening cable necessarily have three wires: phase and ground zero. According to SEP minimum cross-section of the copper wire should be 2.5 mm2. But in practice, use of the cable 4 mm2 often and 6 mm2.
In this wiring scheme is not performed "pokomnatno" and consumer groups. For example, we give an option layout for a 3 - room apartment:
- "Socket" group (the first, second and third room).
- "Kitchen" Group - sockets for power consumers (refrigerator, microwave oven).
- "Lighting" Group - one half of the apartments and the second half.
- "Powerful Consumers' Group - electric oven, home air conditioner, washing machine.
- "Dangerous powerful consumers' group - a Jacuzzi, heated floors, bathroom.
Accommodation sockets can beplan ahead, they should be located in places where it is convenient to connect portable electrical appliances. This outlet must be in sufficient quantity. To connect them together in groups of 3 - 5 pieces. They fed copper cable VVGng 3 * 2.5. The connection is not consistent, from each other, as it was before, and through distribution junction boxes. To protect such a group is enough machine for 25 amperes.
For the group of "coverage" is used VVGng cable3 * 1.5. The most common lighting devices even on the whole apartment is not so powerful to put them on the machine nominal value of 25 amperes. It is enough to be a circuit breaker 10 amps.
For mnogomoschnyh appliances that most of thetime stand permanently in one place, held separate lines with circuit breakers. This machines are carefully selected for the rated current of devices. Used VVGng cable with four conductors for three-phase network. Electric stove and not the exception, it is supplied separate copper cable 4 mm2.
To connect the controller "warm floor" system, too, will need a separate cable line VVGng 3 * 1.5 * 3 VVGng or 2.5 with an individual machine.
All modern wiring is laidclosed way under the floor screed and the walls in special corrugations or pipes. Although this wiring diagram requires more material consumption and labor-intensive, it has significant advantages. In the case of automatic operation, de-energized not the whole apartment, but only the group that network congestion has occurred.
The circuit wiring in a private home
The private home power supply is suitable for most of the air from the line 0.4 kW.
Sometimes the house is a single-phase power supply: directly from the air line to the input support switchboard fit two wires - one phase, the other - a combined protective earth and work cable.
The house can be approached and three-phase power. In this case, the three phases are omitted and a combined protective earth conductor and with a working power support.
Previously counters were always inside the house, andNow still standing, but recently the power supply organizations require to install metering devices on the street, directly in the introductory panel. So now it sets introductory RCD or circuit breaker and electric meter.
Directly in the house set the internalelectrical panel, which is the power supply cable to the introductory panel. It is an internal switchboard is the point from which to start the power of the whole house. Just as with modern wiring in new homes, electricity is divided into groups of consumers. For example:
- "Lighting" group - around the house or broken on the floors if a large cottage.
- "Socket" group - for the whole house or on the floors.
- "Powerful Consumers' Group (Power Unit): washing machine, boiler, boiler, refrigeration unit, etc.
- "Economic needs" Group: garage, barn, outbuildings, cellar, etc.
Be sure to protect individual devices are set for each group.
Calculation of electrical wiring in the home
wiring project in the house with all the calculationsIt can be ordered from specialized in these works of the organization. But if we decided to do it yourself, then here are some requirements that must be met:
- Choose the right material and its cable section.
- Observe the conditions of the current heating with allowable stress.
- Wiring should not create a fire hazard.
- voltage transmission should take place with the least losses.
- Provision should be reliable and durable, it does not require large expenditures for installation and operation.
Important! To find the correct wire size, you need to know exactly where and how consumers will be located. Their power will depend on the characteristics of the cable.
Calculate cross-section conductors and protective equipment can choose via №1 table.
At the moment in the homes use copper wires: for sockets - 2.5 mm2, for lighting - 1.5 mm2 for the hob - 6 mm2.
at calculating wiring Observe the ratio of nominal breakersor RCD and wire sizes. If during operation of the finished wiring you add powerful consumers, and will operate the machine, can not simply be replaced by a more powerful machine, you must change both the cable cross-section, and the machine. Either you need to form another group and bring to it the individual wires.
Creating a circuit wiring in the house iscompulsory. And it's not even the fact that the requirement of appropriate control organizations, in later life, it is useful to you. Having familiarized with the circuit layout, it's easy to identify a weakness or fault cause and fix it.