How to repair the electrics in the apartment or house
Faulty wiring provokesperiodic outages of devices that are connected to the network, and is often the cause of fires. Repairing electrical wiring in the apartment should be carried out in order to avoid accidents, as a faulty cable can damage and life and material well-being of man.
- The reasons for the replacement of wiring
- Repair electricians in apartment
- The plan - the start of repair
- How to select Cable
- electrical wiring rules
The reasons for the replacement of wiring
The main reasons that motivate ownersApartments to think about replacing the electrical wiring on the new cable, appears constantly increasing need for innovative use of domestic equipment.
Earlier in the construction of high-rise buildingsuse cheap aluminum wire with a weak insulation, designed for low-power devices power consumption. The power of such a typical wiring was 2 kW, but the modern household appliances require more index.
When simultaneous operation of the computer,refrigerator, hair dryer, washing machine, iron and kettle in the shield machine work, turn off the electricity because the power in this case amount to 4.2 kilowatts. If tenants are using more and heater, toaster, electrical, power consumption can be up to 10 kilowatts.
The wiring in the apartment must be changed every 20years. Switches, dimmers and receptacles also are not durable and are designed for 5-7 years, depending on the connected loads. protection devices should be changed every 10 years.
In most situations, the repair wiringwith his own hands is reduced to the damaged section of the cable replacement, troubleshooting or replacing the electrical fittings - switches, connectors, sockets, plugs and caps.
The causes of the fault in the wiring are as follows:
- Short circuit. These problems occur because of damage to the insulation in places where wires bend - in cartridges of lamps, input socket connection, due to twisted wires electrical appliances.
- Poor contact where the wires connect. As a result, the wire is gradually warming, causing melting of the contacts, burning cores and conductor insulation.
- Mechanical cable damage occurs most often due to repairs near the wiring damage when drilling or nailing walls.
Repair electricians in apartment
Before you start repair electricians in apartment, You need to determine the cause of damage to the cable andlocation of the fault. Search problems is to divide the wiring in an apartment on the sites. To do this at your fingertips, it is desirable to have a circuit wiring.
The plan - the start of repair
For a complete replacement of the wiring in the apartment need new wiring plan showing all the cable connection points, the desired section of the cable, plugs and sockets, dimmers and switches.
To perform the electrical work required such tools and materials:
- Screwdrivers, side cutters, pliers with insulated handles;
- Pliers for stripping cable;
- Measuring devices;
- Drill with drill bits for wood or concrete;
- Punch and attachments thereto;
- Fittings, Cable, Electrical;
- Cloth duct tape;
- Boxes made of plastic for the installation of sockets;
- A knife and a spatula;
- Putty on the cast.
It is necessary to precisely plan new raschertitwiring in each room and as a whole. This must be done for the future: after a certain period after the installation of wiring, you can not remember the exact location of the cable, so if the sight will not be posting the project, can easily cause damage when attempting to hammer a nail or drill a hole.
How to select Cable
To determine the required cable cross-section should besummarize wattages appliances that are in the apartment, including light sources. By operating capacity of each device to be added "in reserve" by 100 watts, and then according to Ohm's law, the final amount must be divided by 220. The resulting number is usually in the range of 12-16 amperes. Thus, the cross-section of copper cable should be close to 1.5 square millimeters.
If you get a great value, it should be fromswitch board put several cable lines, placing them in parallel and each of them has a separate residual current device. This decision will be more acceptable than just assembling a larger wire gauge, which increases costs and reduces reliability of power supply apartments. Choosing a wire for installation in an apartment, it is better to give preference to copper. Such a wire cord is superior in characteristics of aluminum in half.
electrical wiring rules
The most important thing - to disconnect an apartment with the help ofPacket switching in the switch panel to "off". Electrical wires in the shield must not be touched sleeved clothes or hands. To begin the repair wiring taken from the corridor: it is necessary to install the shield, lay new wires parallel to the old cable without damaging the latter, connected to the new wiring switches and sockets, leaving the other rooms on the old cable. Posting changes gradually in each room. You can also remove the old cable, and in this place the new channel.
The new wire should be laid "against the wall", the old cable is removed completely. It is very difficult prodelyvat channels in the concrete wall, in this situation it is better to use grinder.
New channels Grooves must be performed vertically and horizontally, without deviation.
Before laying the cable in the new channels is recommendedverify the length of the floor, making sure that the repair electricians pass perfectly. Stacked electrically in Stroebe, it should zashpatlevat gypsum putty. Set switches and sockets must be after drying putty. Before connecting the wires to the socket terminal, their bare ends must be tin-plated soldering iron.
Now, new wiring lines are connected to thevisor. Such lines usually must be at least 2 - one is put in the kitchen, because here there are many energy-intensive technology, the second line - in other rooms. Electric recommended fed from a single wire. For each of the lines needed power circuit breakers, they can be installed in the housing ladder or shield.
In this work on the replacement of wiring in the apartment is complete. It remains only to start the input cables in the plate!