How to make ground in the apartment
Special wiring that connectselectrical equipment with ground connection is vital in modern apartments. That ground is the main guarantor of electrical safety. It eliminates the possibility of human injury shock, accidentally touched the body eletroustroystva in case of breakdown of the phase conductor or insulation failure. Moreover, all instructions to household appliances indicates that this product may not be used without grounding. In his absence, the manufacturer declines all responsibility in case of breakage technology. Do not they bear responsibility for any consequences arising from its improper connection. But how to hold ground in the apartment? What is technology? And in all the apartments if it is feasible? Answers to these questions are presented in this article.
- Ground for Buildings
- How to make ground in an old house?
- Reasons for excluding the grounding installation
Ground for Buildings
In various different systems are used homesground. Before the start of the ground, you need to find out which system is used in your home. In general, according to the rules, which were adopted in 2003, every building must be equipped with a riser of the five wires in which the 5th wire - is precisely the grounding conductor. If your house is all that way, you just have to dissolve the ground wire around the apartment (third conductor in the cable), then put all the special a grounded wall outletAnd bath arrange PRSPs.
1. Thus, in new houses, as a rule, modern system TN-C-S (has a zero as a working or protective conductors, which are normally connected to the main board of the building, they are all hereinafter separated). In this system, road access to the risers suitable 3-phase L, and divided N (work zero) and PE (protective conductor). In this case, the connection process is much easier, since the individual floor panel tire is provided, for connecting the ground, and the ground phase. And the ground bus has a metallic bond with the electrical housing.
Define your home connected to this system (TN - C - S) is easy. Just look at the cable that is suitable for riser (introductory). He must have 5 wires:
- 3 phases such as L1, L2, L3;
- Protective zero PE;
- Worker zero N.
The connection is made as follows:
- phase wire from the apartment is connected to the same bus, which was the previous oldest wire;
- Worker N Zero wire is connected to the bus, in which the neutral conductor;
- ground wire PE (protective earth) is connected to the body panel.
Important! Connect all ground wires (which in the panel) 1 screw (clip) - you can not! It is necessary to apply different bolting. It is better to use the bus: screw it to the shield, then connect the PE.
It is also important to consider the following:
- while, 3-pin input everything conductors must have the same cross-section (for copper and 16 mm2);
- under 1 machine well-terminal can be clamped to the 2 conductors of the 1st section;
- to obtain uniform loading is preferred, 3-pin connection to the cooking surface;
- all metal parts in the bathroom (tube screenfloor heating, bath and so on.) and the grounding conductor socket (of course, if there is such in the bathroom) must be connected to the bus PRSPs (or PMC), which should be in the same place. In this socket is powered by three-hprovodnoy scheme;
- All PE conductors in the presence of mechanical protection should be 2.5 mm2, if it is not - 4 mm2. The conductor of the bus to the bus PRSPs panel PE (better story) - must be a cross-section of 6 mm2;
- preferably to separate lighting circuits and power (outlet) .However mixed feeding is allowed. A line of all power plants (stove, oven, CM) should be separate.
2. In some apartment buildings of a new type (1997) used the system TN-S (neutral conductor (working and protection) throughout disconnected). Such grounding most reliable. When connecting the house ground wire installed separately, along with the phase, the neutral wire from the substation to the electrical house. Therefore, all the conditions to connect the grounding in the apartment already available. It is similar as in the TN - C - S.
How to make ground in an old house?
In older homes usually occurs TN-C system inwhich on the whole it over the neutral conductor (working and protection) are combined into one neutral conductor (PEN). The case of electrical equipment (electrical, panel case or assembly) is connected with the conductor PEN. This protection is called zeroing. Circuit vanishing installed at the substation that feeds the house. To access road risers suitable 3-phase L, and the combined PEN-conductor. All storied shields in such a system vanishes, and grounding them is not provided.
Wiring in the case of single-phasehousing supply is performed 2-hzhilnymi cable (phase, PEN). Or 4-hzhilnymi cables (A, B, C, PEN), 3-pin when power is flat. The protective earth contact sockets available.
It is the oldest and most commonearthing system. It is very long existed in the USSR, and, unfortunately, still in many homes still exists. Why "Unfortunately? And because when it is used there is a serious risk of electric shock. Circuit breakers (protective switching devices), established with the TN-C system, protecting email. circuit (the group line) only on the short-circuit currents. But protection against electric shock is completely absent.
Important! If you can recommend a qualified electrician to do the wiring using TN-C earthing system, do not hesitate to give up! She was not able to protect against electric shock! Job appliances such a system poses a potential threat to life! In addition, the SAE (p. 1.7.80) Do not place the RCD in the grounding system as the main protection.
Under the new standard, adopted in 2003, inall the old houses TN-C system should be translated in a TN-C-S or TN-S through the modernization of power circuits (potential equation system installation). However, poor funding does not allow us to implement it in all the houses. In most organizations sluchaevenergosnabzhayuschie proceed as follows: on the introduction of an apartment building mounted repeated grounding of the neutral conductor. Then share the PEN-conductor into 2 separate wires:
- Zero (N) working conductor;
- protective (PE) conductor.
Important! In the case of the system TN-C alone to take in relation to the ground, unfortunately, nothing is impossible! You can not build your personal memory! Since it will be outside of the house and PAF can cause the appearance of stray currents. Therefore, you can only use the available obschedomovoy grounding system.
In other words, you must either completelyconvert the whole house wiring to the new standards, or use appliances with non-conductive body. It is also recommended to install an RCD on the circuit, which feed the appliances. It is particularly important - in the bathroom. RCD is not able to protect against electric shock, but the deadly defeat it will save them.
Reasons for excluding the grounding installation
- If the ground is not connected to the water-supplytubes, batteries, valves, and other conductive parts of the apartment, between a wiring connected to these appliances and parts, hazardous voltage will appear. But even if you connect the ground and get good, then these designs equalizing current grounding will go through the whole apartment. These currents can be very large, so in violation of PEN (main earthing) there is a risk of fire due to excess currents. But that is not all. In the event of electrical voltage on the housing by a grounded battery or water pipe, a tube voltage and will include all the batteries including the neighboring homes. As a result, a neighbor who decided to pour water from the tap can hit to death shock! On the prohibition of the use of pipes written vPUE 1.7.110.
- Also it is impossible to carry out the circuit simulation"Ground" through the connection in the earthing-pin "the neutral" from "zero protection" conductor. This is extremely dangerous. Frequent sluchaiotgoraniya "zero working" conductor shield. This leads to what is on the computer, refrigerator, etc. located 220 W. Naturally, the consequences will be dire.
- The only exception is the ground "onzero ", which is done in homes, specially designed for electric stoves. However, this should be done only after careful study of the neutral conductor at the cross-section (at least 16 Blocks. For aluminum), as well as continuity (PUE 7, point 1.7.131). Doing this should be by a qualified electrician.
Thus, we see that in some caseshold ground in the apartment is not easy. Everything will depend on the system, which is applicable throughout the house. And if this system is TN - C - S or the TN - S, the ground and can be yourself (that is, to hold the wires in the apartment). If it is an old TN - C, in the case of individual apartments will not help even experienced electrician. It needs to be changed throughout the house.