How is wiring in a private home
Talking about the need for the electrification of todayeven as it is ridiculous. Try to live a day without TV or computer! Joking aside, but from an uninterruptible power supply depends on lighting, heating, hot water, air conditioning and communication. If you are the lucky owner of a private home and the trouble of laying electric wires you just expect that useful information about the features of the circuit design, the choice of technical solutions and wiring It will not be superfluous. So, wiring diagram in a private house developed taking into account locationelectrical equipment, both inside the house and the surrounding buildings. Electrical system of a private house will withstand the load is much more powerful than the wiring apartment: will take into account the coverage of the territory adjacent to the house, the heating system, water supply, air-conditioning, video surveillance, etc.
- The layout of wiring in a private home
- Electricity Consumer groups
- Wiring open or closed?
- Tools required for installation
- wiring layout rules
- Recommendations on the selection of materials
Preparation before installation of wiring diagramsstarting work required. Firstly, the concept of power supply scheme allows you to quickly and accurately make a list of necessary supplies, secondly, facilitate the selection of the location of circuit breakers, sockets, counter, switchgear, voltage stabilizers, uninterruptible power supply devices.
The layout of wiring in a private home
According to the modern requirements for devicewiring, wiring pokomnatnuyu (certainly less costly for the costs of cable products and less troublesome for electricians) recommended to replace the wiring harness division circuit, which will further protect the network from overloading.
It is advisable to divide the wiring circuit forPower consumption (stationary appliances, lighting, sockets), this separation is necessary for the selection of cable cross-section and certain parameters of the circuit breaker, respectively, anticipated loads. For outlets often use a wire diameter of 2, 5 mm, for lighting will be sufficient wire diameter of 1.5 mm. Power consumption is calculated outlet group to the load not exceeding 4.6 kW, and the power consumption of the lighting group must not exceed 3.3 kW. For each group, the domestic electric board set a separate residual current device (single or differential automata).
Electricity Consumer groups
- lighting network;
- network sockets;
- a network of stationary electrical (power network);
- for household needs (power supply garage, outbuildings, greenhouses).
Power supply some instruments (electric boiler, floor heating system, electric stove in the sauna) requires the allocation of a separate electrical circuit.
In accordance with Scheme calculate lengthdifferent cable cross-sections, the number of switches, sockets, the corresponding parameters machines (single-phase machines are activated for a short circuit and a significant overload and differential automatic trigger for a short circuit and stray currents).
The electrical system in the house is from the counter, automatic, intermediate machines, wiring, switches, outlets and consumers, but if Power surges the network is not uncommon for thethe smooth operation of electrical appliances is advisable to use a current stabilizer (in fact in excess of relevant indicators of the unit will burn voltage and in low voltage will not work). The stabilizer for the whole home - pretty expensive and bulky device, so it is best to select a stabilizer for expensive equipment, sensitive to voltage drops.
For private home is more convenient three-phase systempower, due to the possibility of three-phase connection of consumers, such as an electric heating device, boiler phase will provide the greatest efficiency. There is a possibility of load distribution in phases, which avoids the phase imbalance.
Wiring open or closed?
Selection of open or closed wiringIt depends on the construction material from which the house is built. In a wooden house wiring must be exclusively open type, in this case the fire should be given the utmost attention. The wires can be laid inside a special metal corrugated hose, which provides additional protection of the wooden walls of the house. The brick house wiring may be both internal and external.
Wiring can be hidden type replaceable(Laid inside plastic pipes) or unchangeable (laid in a specially hollowed Stroebe, they subsequently closed plaster). The cable must comply with the intended load. With any method of laying all cable connections are carried out in junction boxes, they must have access to be able to control and eliminate the open circuit.
Tools required for installation
- Screwdriver indicator;
- a hammer;
- wall chaser;
- insulating tape.
Installation of electrical wiring in a private home musttake into account the mandatory requirements for the location of switches and sockets. Inside the premises with high humidity (bathroom, sauna) prohibits the use of sockets and switches installation. Connecting to the network socket for electric shavers is possible only through a transformer.
wiring layout rules
The layout begins with the main beam cablesdesignated places branches, twists and turns, passing through walls. Mark up the placement of switches, sockets, lighting products, not forgetting the only vertically or horizontally wiring layout rule.
The wire is laid along the wall, at a distance of 20cm. from the ceiling. Precise observance of the rules reduces the risk of mechanical damage to the wiring afterwards. Depending on the selected method of paving the wiring cable from the switch board to consumers, according to the scheme.
Recommendations on the selection of materials
Power consumption of a private house is much higherapartment, so cross-section of the opening of the cable to a private home usually about 10mm2. Most of the outlets in a private house meant for portable appliances. Most single-phase sockets are combined into groups, energized group of sockets (3-5 pieces) using a copper cable VVGng 3h2,5. This group protects the input breaker 25 amps. The layout of wiring in a private home with a three-phase home network should take into account the load distribution between phases, to preserve the symmetry of the phase voltages.
Circuit breaker designed toGroup coverage typically does not exceed 10 amperes (if on the totality of the power consumption of lamps in the house required machine with higher ratings, it is usually recommended to create another group of lighting). The most common lighting group VVGng power cable 3x1.5 used.
For stationary appliances installedSocket required nominal current (single phase) or three-phase socket. Sockets for electric heat is fed commonly VVGng with four cores for three-phase or single-phase to three. To supply the washing machine, as well as for underfloor heating controller recommended a separate line with the desired circuit breaker rating. Chain power outlets laid three-strand wire for grounding.
Modern private house wiringOnly copper wire is laid. Aluminum wiring is much easier and cheaper, but it has some significant drawbacks. Avoid connection aluminum and copper wires together, as this causes a chemical reaction to form compounds interfering contacting wires. An advantage of the copper wire is much smaller in resistance compared with aluminum, in addition, the ability of aluminum to form a surface oxide film having a high resistance leads to heating of contacts, which is unsafe.
All electrics private home as simple as possible should be organized and clear, this rule is the key to its safety and reliability.
Of course, the wiring mustcarried out only by a qualified technician, but to know the basic rules and principles Wiring will be useful to everyone. Understanding the wiring placement features allow to avoid mechanical damage during repairs in the future.
technically sound electrified the house can only specialist, but the responsibility for the technical condition and the correct wiring operation are users.