All about energy-saving lamps
Energy-saving lamps on the marketlinear and compact fluorescent lamps (low-pressure discharge), which contain mercury, and LED, are eco-friendly devices. A common, unifying characteristic is that these fixtures can significantly save energy, while delivering significantly greater luminous efficiency in comparison with the usual incandescent lamps. Last in the coming years will cease to exist, as the world's governments throughout set a course on the use of energy-saving technologies. People have to make a choice between the future generations of devices. But what kind of energy-saving lamps are better than they are different, and what you should look for when buying? All and many other questions to answer next.
- Linear and compact devices
- Types of CFLs
- Advantages of Fluorescent Lamps
- Criteria for selection of the fluorescent lamp
- Characteristics of LED lamps
- Types of LED devices
- The main advantages of LED lamps
- Landmarks buy LED lamps
Linear and compact devices
Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) the bulb has a curved shape, which allowsplace it in small lamps of smaller dimensions. Typically, they are used in a domestic environment, and replace incandescent lamps in conventional luminaires. It is also used in specific types of lighting devices. This lamp contains inert gases (still as argon, neon), and mercury vapor from inside its housing covers the phosphor layer. When exposed to high voltage electrons begin to move it. The result of the collision of electrons with mercury atoms becomes invisible ultraviolet radiation that is transformed into visible light (thanks to the phosphor layer).
CFL consists of three parts:
- cap, whereby it is connected to the network;
- Electronic ballasts, ie electronic ballast. That it includes the ignition, and further supports the burning lamp. He also carries the voltage of 220 V at which it is necessary to work in the CFL "flicker-free" mode.
These components may vary, which causes a variety of apparatus.
Linear fluorescent lamp can be circular, straight or U-shapedform. 2 htsokolnaya straight fluorescent lamp looks like a glass tube. At its ends welded special glass legs on which the electrodes are reinforced. On the inner surface of a pipe a thin layer of powder - phosphor. It is filled with an inert gas, a metered amount of mercury and hermetically sealed.
Such lamps vary in diameter and length of the tube and the cap width. The larger the pipe, the greater the power consumption. It is used commonly in offices and factories.
The most widely used CFLs. Linear analogues are their "progenitors" and gradually receding into the past. On modern devices continue to talk in more detail.
Types of CFLs
The domestic market CFLs formed mainlyimport bill. Distributed products brands such as General Electric, Philips, UNIEL, OSRAM, Navigator, Ecola, Compak. They are classified according to the characteristics of their components:
1. As the cap, which may be:
- 2D - for decorative lighting andsealed light showers, G23 - for showers, bathrooms and wall lights, 2G7, G24Q1, G24Q2, G24Q3 - used in industrial and household devices,, G53 - are used as energy-saving bulbs for spotlights;
- E27 - a normal chuck (the most common);
- E14 - used by small holder;
- E40 - a major patron.
Lamp socket E27, E14 - set incartridges of conventional incandescent lamps, as they are the easiest installation in conventional lamps. Figures 27, 14 and 40 correspond to the diameter of the thread in the standard units. They claimed lifespan can range from 3 thousand to 15 thousand hours. Lamps for these cartridges are available with a diffuser and an open tube.
2. In light color, which is:
- warm white;
- cool-white color;
- neutral white;
3. Also, the diameter of the flasks that can be 7, 9, 12 and 17 mm.
4. The shape of the CFL are:
- U-shaped (3-hdugovye, hdugovye-4, 6-tidugovye);
- in the form of a spiral (there are 3 - 85 watts).
Lamps helically slightly smaller inUnlike the U-shaped due to the length, but they are equal in power. Exterior not affect the functionality of the lighting device. But spiraling lights cost more because of the more labor-intensive techniques of production.
Advantages of Fluorescent Lamps
- Reduce electrical energy consumption by 80% without detriment to the light flux, which is the same as that of incandescent lamps.
- Long term operation (up to 15 thousand. Hours). What is 6-14 times more than the normal bulb. This makes it possible to install them in the places where it may be difficult noticed frequent light equipment (for example, in a room with high ceilings).
- Produces less heat than usualincandescent. This allows the use of small high power CFL in a particularly complex construction of lamps, sconces, chandeliers. In such lighting fixtures incandescent wire is able to melt any plastic part of the cartridge.
- Light CFL is much more gentle to the eyes andIt spreads much more evenly. This is achieved through the special design of the device. After all, the housing area of fluorescent lamps more than in spiral filament devices.
- CFLs can have various colortemperature. This means that the color and it may be different, for example, 2700 K - warm white light of 4200 K - daylight, 6400 K - cool-white color. Color temperature is measured in Kelvin. Moreover, the "cooler" color temperature, so it is closer to red than a "warmer" - especially the blue. Thus, using CFLs can vary the lighting, make it much more original.
Criteria for selection of the fluorescent lamp
- The size. It is necessary to immediately figure out whether the bulb is suitable in size, whether it will enter the chandelier or lamp holder. In other words - it is necessary to choose the correct base.
- Lamp power. This will determine the intensity of luminescence. 25 watts, because the light is very bright on the more powerful device - in excess of 15 For residential premises is not recommended to buy CFL power.
- Life time. It is desirable to choose the lamp with the longest lifetime.
- Colorful temperature. It is necessary to have an idea of color shades and choose the best for your space. In the large hall, usually gather a lot of people, it is better to install CFLs neutral-white color in the rest room, probably - a warm-white color.
- Price. Cheaper cost lamps U-shaped flask.
- Disadvantages of CFLs. Whatever the benefits of energy-saving lamps had no - harm from them it is also possible. Because they contain mercury, which refers to a hazard class 1 (the most poisonous). The fluorescent energy saving light bulbs mercury is in vapor form. If it is broken, the mercury begins to spread easily through the air. When injected into the human lungs, it accumulates there, spreading to other areas, and for a long time does not appear, harming health. Fluorescent lamps contain from 1 to 70 mg of mercury.
If broken energy-saving lamp, you need toimmediately collect the remains in any capacity, and firmly close it, treat the surface on which the mercury solution of potassium permanganate. This room should be thoroughly aired.
Characteristics of LED lamps
The second type of lamp, which relate toenergy-saving, LED lamps are. They are available as complete devices (lamps) and luminaires elements (directly LED lamps). They are used in the home, in the workplace, may have a different view, they produced almost beneath all types of caps.
- Actually LEDs
- The boards on which they are attached
- Radiator, which cools the LEDs
- Ventilation openings intended for air circulation
A beam of light of LED lamps narrow enoughabout 60 degrees. Because of this, for the illumination of rooms used lamps with lenses that extend light output. But, for example, table lamps that require a narrow beam of light, use a lamp without a lens.
Types of LED devices
They differ structurally and depending on their scope.
Depending on where the LED lamps are used, are distinguished:
- Led-lamps for general lighting of offices and residential apartments
- LEDs for interior lighting
- LED lamps for landscaping and exterior architectural lighting
- Explosion-Proof LED Lamp
- Outdoor LED Lights
- Industrial LED spotlights
According to the type of structural features of the cabinet, and depending on the properties of the emitted light are distinguished:
- Led-lamps for general purposes. This is the highest quality sources of scattered light, pleasant to the eye, as close to daylight. Used in homes and offices
- Led-lamp c directional light. Used to illuminate the trade showcases, in interior lighting
- Linear LED lamps. It looks like an elongated tube with swivel cap. Due to the design in which the lamp illumination angle can be changed easily. They are used mainly in offices
There are LED bulb and socket type:
- The bulb (T). This bulb-tube. They are made with a special swivel cap, made in several sizes from 15.9 mm (T5) to 38.0 mm (T12).
- Edison Screw (E). This lamp with a screw system is connected to a power source. It is considered the most common type of cap structure. The marking after E is a certain figure which characterizes the diameter of the threaded connection. Standard sizes - E27 and E14. They are designed for operation in the network 220 do not require connection adapters.
- Pin base (G). These lamps are connected to the cartridge by means of a pin. Fixing the plugs look like a pair of contacts of a certain length and thickness (which may be a standard (for 220 V) and low voltage.
- Other varieties of caps, which are rarely found:
- S - soffit;
- R - with external contact;
- In -shtiftovoy;
- P - focusing.
The main advantages of LED lamps
- They are characterized by very long service life, reaching 100 thousand. Hours
- Consumes little power (about 8 times less when compared to conventional incandescent lamps)
- They are completely harmless, do not contain harmful substances to break them scary, so it is safe to operate. Easily recycled.
Landmarks buy LED lamps
- Brightness. It is necessary to focus on the power of 12-20 watts.
- Light color. The manufacturer usually indicates the package color temperature of the lamp. And the higher it is, the whiter the light.
- Lighting angle. For general lighting lamps are buying a lens. it is not necessary for the spotlights.
- Color factor which should not be less than 90%.
We have reviewed the main types and all majorcharacteristics of energy-saving lamps. We hope that this information will help you make the right choice to buy a lamp with the optimal settings best suited for your particular room lighting.