Power consumption required forservice a huge number of devices that facilitate our lives, increases day by day. The abundance of wires, cables, sockets, circuit breakers and fuses is necessary not only as a place, but also to maintain in good condition. Besides old wiring is often not withstand the new high stress, causing its complete replacement need. Not everything in this case can do without a qualified electrician - with their own hands without the skill to make the change is not easy. Many of such work seems difficult, although it is just a misconception. In this article we will try to give all the necessary information for you to be able to perform on their own just to be electrical work.
- Competent preparation for work
- Replacing old wiring
- How to choose a wire
- An open or a hidden way?
- wire connection rules
- Common fault
- Requirements for precluding damage
- How to troubleshoot
- Safety for electricians
Competent preparation for work
If you are interested in how to makewiring your own hands, you need to make as much as possible a detailed scheme with a precise indication of the size and location of electrical outlets. To do this, you need to have some knowledge of school physics course, as well as to get acquainted with the Rules for Electrical Installation (PUE) to avoid mistakes in the design. What else is needed at the initial stage?
- Schematic diagram of the entire wiring in the home.
- Understanding the basic principles of electrical work.
- Knowledge of methods for removal of small faults.
- Information about the main types of wires and their characteristics.
- Experience with the tool.
If you live in a private home, then most likely, the executive wiring diagram It is in your archive documents. If you are the owner of the apartment, then you can get it in either RG or housing department, or create your own (perhaps it will be faster). Introducing significant changes to the existing plan, remember that they will have to coordinate the relevant authorities.
Replacing old wiring
Let's start with such a complex and most time-consuming process, as the replacement of the wiring by hand.
How to choose a wire
To determine the correct wire cross-section is necessary to calculate the total load on the network, while the inclusion of all consumers. For every kilowatt of power allocated 0.5 square millimeters
Buy better stranded copper wire, itmuch more flexible its "competitors" and can withstand very high loads. In a residential area, where it is not planned to use high-power devices, such as electric cooker, enough to buy a three-wire cable VVG with a cross section of 1.5 mm to 2.5 mm and lighting supply voltage. For high-power devices need to wire up to 4 square millimeters
An open or a hidden way?
There are hidden and open wiring. Since open wiring assembly is almost the same process as the assembly of hidden except for laying cables in specific channels, we will consider is the latter case.
You can, of course, conceal the wiring and applying a layer of plaster on it, but much more aesthetic will hide all the wires in the channels arranged in the walls.
To do this, the walls of the scheme is appliedwiring, and drafted the lines (by the way, they must be placed vertically or horizontally only, and is highly undesirable intersection) is cut by a groove grinders. Further on it by means of the perforator selected Stroebe 15-20 mm deep. For the sample outlet holes uses a special nozzle, but can do without it. In this case:
- noted center outlet;
- planned around the perimeter of the drilled hole;
- area between them is knocked out using a chisel.
Wiring in the channel is fixed by special plastic ties and Enclosures are installed on plaster.
Tip: when you install Escutcheon not forget to leave the margin required to align the wall putty.
The wires are placed on the shelf channels onoutlet to the junction box from the switch and to the junction box through the lamp. Each junction box should fit on one power supply cable. After that, the wire switched.
Concealed wiring can be placed not only inwalls, and it can run inside baseboards or in special boxes overhead. This allows for continued operation quickly detect the fault and fix it. To prevent a short-circuit or open-circuit need to know
wire connection rules
First, we clean carefully both ends forensure a tight contact. Next, gently twist and carry propaivaem its very hot soldering iron, but with the universal flux, to avoid excessive overheating of the insulation, leading to its rapid deterioration. All sharp edges must be blunt contact wires so they do not have pierced the insulation.
Council: Wires better to buy so that one core mission corresponded to a specific color. For example: phase - red wire, zero - blue, and grounding - green. In the future, they will be easier to attach to each other.
After wiring voltage is applied to the junction box and check its availability in outlets with the help of indicator lamps and a job. Now you are ready to finish the room.
It is not always a need to replaceelectricians. Sometimes you need a simple repair line. The quality of our power grids are still poor. Therefore, even if the wiring is run on all the provisions of the rules and standards, frequent Power surges it can lead to various injuries.
Also, their appearance may be caused byconnecting to the network of non-working appliances, as well as the protection devices trip delay or malfunction. Let us examine the main failure of electrical circuits.
- Sparking wires. It occurs when opening a circuit under load, if the wires and cables are not well connected to each other, as well as the breakdown of the insulation between two conductors.
- Overload. This fault may also cause a fire, as in this case, the wire is above the current nominal value of the allowed rate, which causes them to heat. As a result, wire insulation may ignite. Even if the heating is insufficient to fire, insulation of it wears out faster. There is an overload, while the parallel connection to the network of a large number of consumers, increasing the temperature in the room or the wrong choice of cables. In rare cases, the cause of the overload are the lightning or hit on the other conductor currents.
- Short circuit. So called any circuit between conductors or between conductors and earth. It arises as a result of violation of the integrity of the insulation as a result of her injuries, aging or high voltage.
Requirements for precluding damage
No short circuit or an overload or other troubles may even never happen if at the time of a mounted wiring own hands, To observe a few simple requirements:
- Do not just twist the wires together, and be sure to connect them by welding, soldering or crimping.
- Do not abuse the parallel connection of electrical outlets.
- Install all necessary safety devices have fast response.
- Use only wires with a sufficient cross-section.
- Use only circuit breakers or fuses.
How to troubleshoot
At observance of safety rules being repairedwiring with their hands quite easily. So, in the house there is no light. What to do? Please check the availability of the voltage in the electrical panel. This is determined using testernogo indicator, which necessarily must be on the list of tools premises host. If it shows that there is voltage, the problem arose only for you. Otherwise, turn off the machine the first thing on the counter and turn it on again. If the reason was the lack of electricity power surge, this should help.
The light does not come on? So it's much more tragic. Rather, there was a break in the wiring due to mechanical damage or overload in the network. It is more difficult to find a place to break a hidden wiring or if the cord is in plastic insulation. In order to detect need an ohmmeter, or colloquially probe. Two of the probe of the device applied to the wire and determine the injury on his testimony. The main rule with an ohmmeter - de-energizing electrical wiring. If you are still not confident in their abilities and absolutely no idea how to approach to the probe is better to invite a professional electrician, which quickly detects a fault.
After finding a place of rupture it must carefully uncover and resolve problems identified, in compliance with all safety regulations.
Safety for electricians
There are several rules that must be followed for any electrical work:
- The electrical network, which is expected to work, must necessarily be de-energized.
- Handles the entire instrument must be isolated.
- If the shield is in public places (for example, on the landing) you must hang a warning sign on the work on the line.
- Before working in the absence of voltage, make sure with the help of special devices.
- With the junction boxes, grounding, protection devices, the counter and the input voltage is run by a qualified electrician.
When working with electricity, remember thatneglect of safety regulations and requirements of the SAE can not only lead to the rapid failure of the circuit, but also, more scary, considerable damage to the human body and even death.