Electrical work in the apartment
The electrical network is one of the mostthe main components of any home. Without it, today it is difficult to imagine our life, whether it is in a country house, office or apartment. On the other hand, we are all so accustomed to it that often in the repair of apartments do not attach due importance to work related to electrical wiring, which includes wires and plates, receptacles, switches, lights and appliances. Electrical work in the apartment - the rules and directions for the implementation of which are given in this article - is to ensure electricity supply throughout the apartment, installation of lighting systems in various types of emergency lighting systems as well as, if necessary, installation guarantee power supply systems.
- Procedure wiring
- The first stage - the markup
- The second phase - the installation itself
- Electrical work in the apartment
- How to dismantle
- The rules of the markup
- Mechanical work - shtroblenie
- Laying of cables, wiring
- Installation of wiring accessories
- Connection cables in a single system
- Commissioning works
The electrical work is preceded by drawing up a work plan.
It should be comfortable and safe to use, because electricity is an area where negligence is unacceptable. At repair of apartments electrical works generally consist of 2 stages.
The first stage - the markup
Manufactured at the beginning of the repair, after it has been carried out redevelopment and demolition work.
At this stage, perform the following work:
- layout places the installation of lighting and other equipment;
- marking sites passing wiring;
- install insulators, fixing switches, sockets, etc .;
- routing and securing cables;
- installation of separation equipment, electrical receivers, enclosures, boxes branching vmazka Enclosures;
- connection of wires;
- inspection and testing.
The second phase - the installation itself
Works are made immediately after the finish of walls, floors and ceilings of the room. These include:
- installation of sockets;
- installation of lighting fixtures - chandeliers, spots, lighting fixtures;
- installation of power consumers.
Electrical work in the apartment
Electricity generally consists of:
- demolition work;
- mechanical works;
- wiring pads;
- installation of wiring accessories (switches, sockets, lamps, etc .;
- Connection cables in a single system;
- commissioning works.
Attention! All electrical work must be performed only by professionals apartment!
How to dismantle
For this type of work include removal of old switches, outlets, and if necessary - and the wires.
The first rule: to avoid the risk of electric shock during the dismantling of the old equipment and old wiring in the switchboard you need to turn off the power.
The rules of the markup
mark application is made in accordanceproject documentation. On all surfaces (where necessary) the premises designated line of cabling and wiring, installation location of switches, sockets, lighting fixtures. Currently outlet set at 40 cm, and switches - 80 centimeters from the floor. The exception is the outlet in the kitchen: here they put on 10 cm above the table top level.
At this stage, we investigate and take into account the gasket other networks (water, sewage, heating, air conditioning, television and computer networks, security system).
Mechanical work - shtroblenie
This kind of electrical work includes the process of drilling the walls (breaching Stroebe) under the hidden wiring and input power cable in the room.
Shtroblenie made using punch grinder with a diamond disk or wall chaser. It is dusty and noisy work, so you need to work in a respirator, goggles and headphones.
second Rule. Before shtroblenie mandatorycontinuity is the wall to find the hidden wiring as the intersection with the previously laid wiring can cause a short circuit or even a fire.
Under the wiring necessary to Stroebe holeexactly vertically at a distance of not less than 10 centimeters from the intersection angles of the walls, windows and doors, and across - 15-20 centimeters from the plinth, 20 cm from the ceiling, 10 cm from the eaves and beams. This is done this way, so that later, when the walls with other finishing and decorating works, not to damage the wiring.
Rule Three. The recesses for switches and sockets are manufactured by drilling holes of circular section 80 mm in diameter.
You can not fit into the general indent wiring and cable television - will be a big noise.
It is desirable to make the circuit wiring after wiring.
Laying of cables, wiring
After partitioning, defining the method of installation,produce cabling or in the clear in special boxes or hidden behind plaster suspended ceilings, building structures. Indoors is most commonly used for concealed installation.
This method is more secure, but in case of breakage installation location is not available, and as a result there is a need to install new wiring.
Tip! To purchase the necessary cable cross-section, it is necessary to calculate the total load of all appliances in the apartment.
To avoid overloading the systemdivided into several supply lines and to each of which specific users are connected, including sockets, switches, lamps, and various electrical equipment. The amount of power on any line should not be more than 4 kW.
For equipment with high power consumption -electric cookers, washing machines, electric fireplaces, whirlpools, electric heaters connected separate lines, each of which must be equipped with its circuit breaker that allows to protect the electrical network from overloads and short circuits.
Tip! When wiring the power supply in the apartment need to respect the principle of single-color: neutral conductor - blue Phase conductor - red or brown, the ground wire - yellow-green color.
Installation of wiring accessories
In carrying out this type of work is necessary to observe certain rules to ensure the safety of home and the people living in it.
Rule Four. When installing wiring open switches and sockets carried on Escutcheon thickness of 10 mm and a diameter of 70 mm, made of materials which are not conductive - wood, etc. Plexiglas.
Rule Five. Boxes placed in special recesses in the wall, fixing them and then a plaster solution.
Rule Six. Switches are set to phase gapwire (not zero), which goes to the patron of the lighting device. This will allow us to disconnect the mains at short circuit, as well as provide a safe replacement cartridges and lamps. Installation of switches should be carried out in such a way as to turn the lights going on by pressing the top button or the top of the key.
Rule Seven. Sockets must be connected parallel to the backbone electric wires.
Rule eight. Separation of the box, as well as sockets and electricity meters should be installed in a location easily accessible for maintenance and repair.
Connection cables in a single system
When rasklyuchenii raspaechnyh special terminal boxes are used.
It is necessary for the subsequent maintenance of wiring.
- visual inspection and verification of compliance with the rules of the mounted electrical installation production of electrical work, as well as project documentation;
- Measurement of insulation resistance of electrical wiring;
- check for the chain, the quality of protection and grounding devices;
- RCD test performance;
- quality control of attachment points of all sockets, hooks for hanging lamps.
No matter in which room and howproperly carried out electrical work, they must be carried out exclusively by specialists, as they have a lot of specifics. If you paint the walls or, for example, pokleit wallpaper can be alone, then such a difficult and responsible job as a wiring in the apartment best left to professionals with specialist knowledge.