Driving and electrical wiring in the apartment
When carrying out repairs to the premises oroccurrence of any fault related to electricity, it is necessary to know the exact location of all electrical components. When you check into the apartment stands a huge disadvantage that the mounting wiring plan is not issued on the hands of the residents, unlike the private sector, where the executive scheme - binding instrument at the project coordination of the relevant authorities. So what to do in this case? Of course, you can try to find it in the REU or housing department. But less energy-intensive option when the circuit diagram is made either by his own efforts in the apartment, or with the help of specialists. In this article we'll talk about what are the different options for power supply of flats and how to chart electricians.
- Methods of connection of electrical circuits
- The main types of wiring layout
- Preparation of electrical wiring diagrams
- Requirements, conditions, rules
- Options electricians accommodation
- Wiring in a studio apartment
- Electrical three-bedroom apartment
Methods of connection of electrical circuits
To the wiring diagram of the apartmentwas compiled correctly, you need some luggage at least a basic knowledge. If you can not boast of their presence, and it is not necessary to undertake such a rather complex operation.
It is better to seek professional help,which quickly and accurately not only make electrical plan, and repair or replace the old wiring if necessary. For those who have little understanding of what is at stake, let us recall the basic ways of connection circuits:
- Consistent - each circuit elementlocated behind the previous one, has no such connection nodes. The most common example - Christmas-tree garland, ie all customers are on the same wire. A significant drawback - in case of failure of one element of the whole chain does not work.
- Parallel - any element not connected with each other, but they are united by two nodes. In this case, even in the event of failure of one of their customers, the others continue to operate.
- Mixed - when one area circuits are used and the first and second type of compounds.
The main types of wiring layout
Selected wiring harness in the apartment is fully responsible for the entire scheme. Total allocated three basic types:
- The most common type of wiring - throughjunction boxes. In this case, the electrical shield is located on a staircase, but not in the living room. From his apartment included power cable, and the panel placed a counter and a few switches (usually 1-3). Each private bathroom electricity through the junction box, located at the entrance.
- "Star". In this case, each lighting point and socket are located on a single cable line coming into the electrical panel, and often have their own circuit breaker. Such electrical wiring in the apartment is good because it gives you the opportunity to exercise full control over every element of the power supply circuit, but significant disadvantage for the owner - a significant increase in the number of necessary wiring and labor costs, as well as the high cost rather oversized shield, which leads to a significant rise in the cost of the project.
- "Plume". The principle of such a layout similar to the "star", but differs in that no one element is placed on the same cable, but several. This project will cost much cheaper than the previous one.
The most commonly used types of mixed spreading room. In this example, the "star" and "tail"
Rarely in which apartment you can find one of the options in the "pure form". In each case, they are mixed to achieve the most effective results.
Preparation of electrical wiring diagrams
any wiring wiring diagram in the apartment - a detailed drawing of the planpremises with a precise indication of the distribution group, and each power supply element. It is best not to place it on one sheet, and on a separate, each of which is a detailed description of only one group. In the future, the plan will be easy to read and understand.
All sources use should be divided intoSeveral groups. By connecting each of them to a separate machine, in the future it will be possible to avoid total power failure in the apartment if necessary, repair the wiring in one of the rooms. In addition, the installation of only one line will need a very powerful cable that can withstand high loads resulting from the simultaneous operation of all users in the network.
If the electrical panel will be inapartment, then you can at least every consumer of electricity connected to a single machine, but this would entail significant costs. Most often there are the following groups:
- lighting living rooms, kitchens and corridors;
- power supply of residential rooms;
- electrical supply kitchens and corridors;
- lighting and electricity bathrooms (this group is to provide, in any case, since due to the high humidity in the bathroom and a private special requirements for electrical wiring);
- if the apartment electric, it should also be separate from the rest.
Important: Do not forget to increase the security for each group to install protective device (RCD), the so-called residual current circuit breakers. Also, they necessarily supplied with electric toilet and kitchen.
Once designed groups mustto determine the place of connection of all major power consumers. This washing machine, electric stove, air conditioner, water heater, oven and dishwasher. Now you can define the installation location of switches, lights, junction boxes and sockets, and apply them to the draft plan for electricians apartments. Carefully connect all circuits and stamped wire lengths.
Tip: Be sure to plan for electrics apartments in two copies and store one of them in the family archive documents. He has not just come in handy.
Now compiled finishing circuit in the electricalapartment. For this represented a precise plan of all rooms on each of the sheets to fit all sizes. All electrical points are put down by conventional symbols and connected by lines that indicate wire. For better readability, we recommend lighting circuit wiring, grounding and power cables are color-coded.
Be sure to mark all distances: linear dimensions of rooms, distance from the wire to the walls, ceiling and floor, as well as to the heating system. Such a scheme will not only feature more clarity, but it will be possible to make all the necessary calculations.
Requirements, conditions, rules
In preparing the plan should be aware of some important requirements to the location of electrical wiring in residential areas:
- The bathroom should be no outlets except shaver sockets, connected via a transformer.
- Do not connect the ground connections to the socketsneutral wire, as well as the water supply or heating system. It is dangerous to human life. For this purpose there is a protective grounding conductor.
- If the apartment is not installed gas and electric stove, the main circuit should be rated at no less than 63A.
- The wires are laid vertically and onlyhorizontal, lying strictly at right angles to each other. It is not necessary to change their trajectory in the future is fraught with the fact that increases the probability of breakdown wire nail or drill when performing minor repairs.
- crossing wires should be avoided. If this is not possible, then the distance between them should be more than 3 mm.
- When setting the size on the plan you need to make sure that the distance from the cable to the floor or the ceiling is at least 150 mm, up to window frames, door frames and angles - not less than 100 mm.
- All switches and sockets are better placed tothe same height. This switch is set to the left of the entrance door at a height of 800-900 mm, and the outlet - 250-300 mm. In some cases, for example in the kitchen, the distance may vary.
- The gap between the heating pipes and wires should not be less than 30 mm.
- The wires are fed to an outlet from the bottom and from the top to the circuit breakers.
Options electricians accommodation
In this article we present the templateselectricians in apartments of different sizes. Of course, each individual plan will depend on the individual preferences of the hosts, but all of them are sockets, lights and a switchboard. Taking a sample of the proposed options, they can be easily supplemented with necessary electrical points.
Wiring in a studio apartment
The studio apartment is most often the wiring is divided into two groups:
- Kitchen and bathroom, which accumulates a large number of electrical appliances;
- living room.
This is done in order to get the supply ofpower by distributing the total load on the two circuits, as well as to the case in circuit or open circuit, one line we have remained in working condition.
Electrical three-bedroom apartment
This scheme is the residential wiringStandard kopeck piece with the location of the electrical panel near the entrance to the apartment is made in a simplified form. Here it is only the main light sources, ie chandeliers, simple one-button switches and hidden outlets with protective contact for grounding.
Driving electrical wiring in an apartment with plenty of room prepared similarly to that pattern.
So as you can see for yourself, circuitryYou can make your own. Of course, a specialist much higher quality do the job, but every landlord is responsible for the safe stay in it all the members of his family as well as himself, and so he should at least be able to correctly identify the place of passage of wires to prevent them from accidental damage unsuccessfully hammered a nail or a drill drill.
Made electrical circuit in your own apartment? Now you are ready to implement your own project.