All about lighting and street lamps
Street lighting has in our livesconsiderable importance. Lamps mounted on masts, pillars and overpasses, increase optical visibility in the dark. Light is necessary both at the broad streets of the metropolis and in the courtyards of small settlements. And if earlier as a night guard, pointing the way, the same used on the form and method of dissemination of roadside lights, today street lighting fixtures striking external diversity and breadth of application. The zone of influence is not limited to roads and pavements - sculptures, fountains, billboards, building facades become active participants in a simple, but very spectacular process of transformation of the surrounding space look.
- From the history of street lighting
- Requirements for street light sources
- Landmarks and nuances of selection
- Types of outdoor spotlights
- Powerful halogen spotlights
- Pros metal halide lamps
- Productive sodium lamps
- Innovative LED lamp
From the history of street lighting
The first street lighting system was set up inAmsterdam in the XVII century, thanks to the efforts of fire brigades - Jan van der Heijden. The grandiose project involves the installation of more than 2500 lanterns designed by them without any help. These oil lamps were used until 1840.
Successful experience in a hurry to take over and other cities. So in 1807 in London, there are gas street lamps that were lit at dusk lamplighters. In Moscow, began to illuminate the streets even earlier - to 1730.
The end of the XIX century was the beginning of a new era, where reigned electric lamps. In XX century, they are replaced by gas-discharge lamps used to this day.
Requirements for street light sources
Outdoor lighting is radically different fromInternal design, installation method and specifications. Other priorities determine the particular choice of street lamps. For example, color indicators that are extremely important when buying lighting fixtures for buildings, in this case, have no significance. At the forefront is the property of both power (light output).
It is important!
Light output - light flux related to its capacity, in other words - efficiency. Usually, Street lights There are LEDs (up to 200 lm / W) or discharge lamps (85-150 lm / W).
Lifetime - another indicator,deserves close attention. Due to the fact that the replacement of street lighting - consuming activities requiring involvement of specialized equipment, long-term "life" - a significant plus, which are required to have external installation.
Landmarks and nuances of selection
street lighting lanterns should be chosen, adhering to the following criteria:
- climatic characteristics of the territory;
- traffic intensity in the illuminated area;
- taking into account the negative impact of the external environment;
- the required light intensity of certain areas;
- proper installation.
Operation of luminaires takes place under conditionshigh humidity and temperature changes, so pay attention to the level of protection (IP). The degree of protection indicates the inability to penetrate the lamp dust, moisture and foreign bodies.
It is important!
To cover with electrical fixtures required degree of protection equal to 23 IP, to cover with the lamp - 54 IP.
The degree of protection is specified in a special table lamp in the passport. The value consists of two numbers:
- The first (1-6) indicates the degree of protection against ingress of solids into the body;
- second (1-8) demonstrated protection against moisture.
Types of outdoor spotlights
Street lamps are divided into 2 types: common and specialized. The latter are used in the navy, the army, with the design of open air concerts. This includes search (navy, army), signal (military ships, lighthouses) and spetseffektnye searchlights (scenic lighting, laser show). We are interested in the first type - a general-purpose floodlights, which are indispensable for the illumination of streets, buildings, playgrounds etc. Such equipment is also called incandescent flood light, because its main function - to maintain the constancy of the illumination area, contributing to the visual separation of the object from the background and the environment.
Classification of street lights is quite extensive. According to the principle of light distribution, they are divided into symmetrical and kruglosimmetrichnye. Symmetrical in turn are subdivided into odnoploskostnaya and biplanar.
There is a division based on the numerical value of luminous intensity, angle of light and CIL (luminous intensity curves), but the most common classification is based on the type of lamps used.
Powerful halogen spotlights
Perfectly conveys the color and create the illusion ofSolar energy - directed point or soft shadowless. Used for lighting of bridges, buildings, advertising signs. By the principle of action of halogen lamps look like classic incandescent lamps only in the buffer gas is added fluorine, bromine, iodine and other halogens which extend the "life" 2 times.
It is important!
Currently available in halogen lamps of different capacity - from 3 to 20 000 watts.
Although light sources such thatHID is not high color- and light output allows to use them in the most modern models of lighting products. The advantages include the ability to adjust the power by dimmers, high security optical compartments and the ability to work in all conditions.
Pros metal halide lamps
The light source advocatedischarge lamps, giving a cold, bright light. This is ideal for lighting exhibition centers, shopping malls, open spaces. The main advantage - insensitivity to sharp surges.
It is necessary to mention the other advantages: the admissibility of strengthening technical priorities with a strong body, long life, wide range of color temperatures.
It is important!
Color temperature metal halide projectors ranging from 3,000 to 20,000 K. The highest rates are close to the spectrum of natural light.
Productive sodium lamps
Characterized by a low color rendering, however,show yellow color spectrum. Most often they are used in landscape design. The luminaires are equipped with high-pressure sodium lamps, the functioning of which is based on the luminescence of sodium vapor in the flask by applying an electrical discharge.
Sodium energy-saving lamps for streetdifferent lighting with low color rendering fairly high luminous efficiency. This means that these projectors form the yellow light field, leveling the other colors. But decent service life (30 000 hours) puts sodium floodlights in the category of very unpretentious and economical equipment for street lighting.
Innovative LED lamp
Differ perfect color reproduction and highcontrast. The main advantages - increased service life, economy, high resistance to mechanical stress. Scope of LED street lamps is broad: designers use them in landscaping, interior design, architectural lighting.
It is important!
Power LED spotlight is 15-30 W, service life - 100,000 hours.
For the implementation of different types of lighting canused a single floodlight or a group, depending on the objectives pursued. As for the lighting of a large building is preferred to install lights around the perimeter at regular intervals, whereas illumination of the monument only one lamp. LED spotlights can create interesting effects in outdoor lighting.
Monochrome execution provides bright, uniform illumination of the object. Full color - is indispensable to create original lighting effects, controlled automatically.
These are the main types of street lights, the use of which not only provides a comfortable movement through the dark city, but also gives an individual the surrounding landscape and memorable appearance.