Russian regular parks and gardens
In urban squares and parks can now be seen,very similar to the ones that were created in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. What is a regular garden, what are its features and why the architects of antiquity with mathematical precision comply with all the proportions of the garden breakdown?
- The main features of the regular style
- The first regular park
- Symmetry and asymmetry
- History Park
- Illusion of more space
- Some terms
- Stealth regular style
The main features of the regular style
- The axial symmetry, the correct form shapes and straight lines are clearly seen in this landscape composition.
- Boxwood, yew, holly - evergreens, which make the park attractive throughout the year.
- For flowerbeds choose annuals, which bloom period is long. It is important that the lighting was uniform, otherwise it will be observed asymmetry of growth and flowering.
- Pool or fountain - an indispensable attribute of the regular style. Its geometric shape may be different, but not necessarily symmetrical. Around the pond are planted vegetation.
- The arches, pergolas and "green" are used to hedge the space zoning. In this park are appropriate and topiary figures.
- Since these gardens were originally created in the area around the castle and occupied a lot of space, a small summer cottage formal garden will not look too well.
- Luxury does not happen much. Marble, bronze, ceramics are used to create the decorating elements. Royal garden - not a place for savings.
The first regular park
The oldest known parks were created in theEgypt, they also erected on the basis of a regular garden. The ancient Greeks talked very logically and rationally. Strict forms and accurate calculation can be traced not only in its architecture but also in gardening art. The order in all - there are no contradictions and dynamics, only the calm, classic shapes.
It is believed that the architecture haveits influence politics, history and philosophy. Classical architecture is perfect - you can not add anything to it, there is nothing superfluous. Classic - is ideal.
For politicians, such a system wasbeneficial, because she maintained stability. Classical style of architecture became the official Empire of Catherine II and the monarchy of Louis XIV. Cold superiority and detachment from the real problems - that's what really expressed severe forms, accurate calculation and absolute symmetry.
Symmetry and asymmetry
Proportionality, symmetry - it is harmonybetween different parts of the whole structure. The ancient Greeks had no doubt about the subject, in which there was no symmetry - it was considered not perfect and ugly. The concept of symmetry wider, it is used not only in figures, but also to the phenomena and processes.
Asymmetry - a result of disorder ofmovement. We can say that the symmetry - a state of rest, an asymmetry - the state of motion. Moving the system may not be symmetrical. We conclude that absolute symmetry is characteristic only for the objects of inanimate nature.
There was a "symmetric aesthetics settings Code".
- Correct form reinforces the impression.
- Every detail of the exhibit in the most favorable light, she takes it to her allotted place, but does not stand out so that the remaining elements of the "lost" on its background.
In the era of Baroque in France at the palace of the kingLouis XIV created parks, the design of which corresponds to the regular style. Hence the name "French formal garden," although born fashion for such parks in Italy. English gardeners entered their innovations. They began to practice cut shrubs and trees form a complex. Bushes in the form of birds, animals and geometric figures now adorn parks around the world.
Park at Versailles - a typical example of thatIt characterizes the regular style of landscape design. A solemn, pompous, majestic - just such a park was to serve as a place for walking kings and nobles. André Le Nôtre - gardener of Louis XIV, who worked on the creation of parks in the regular style.
Parks erected not for the purpose of unity with nature,but rather in order to subdue her. The whole ensemble of Versailles (park with a palace) is subordinated to the idea of autocracy. Alley, which radiate from the center, symbolized the absolute power of the king. Russian regular parks and gardens emerged thanks to Peter I, who saw the sample of landscape art in Versailles in 1717.
Gardens in Florence and Fiesole are also examples of garden art. Their features:
- symmetric seed beds;
- fountains with cascades;
- mazes, grottoes, sculptures of mythological creatures.
Illusion of more space
Terrace, which was built over the garden, he servedconvenient place for surveying. Flowerbeds, lawns, shrubs planting limited borders or colored sand. All the trees were the same height, brush and cut their hair. In the midst of the garden, as a rule, residential building was situated, while next to him there was no trees, just low shrubs. Along the main axis of the composition of the reservoir built or broken lawn, framed by trees. The main park axis is opposite the main entrance, at the same time she was always perpendicular to the front of the house.
- Garden in the regular style to create such a building. So called green lawns facilities, shrub rows - walls, cascading fountains - ladders. The performances and fireworks, ballets and comedy often held here. In the XVIII century came the fashion for landscape gardens, and the role of architecture is no longer the primary.
- Fine lace parterres in the shape of a square, circle, oval created directly from the house.
- Trees sheared so that the farther from the center of the garden trees seem lower. Through this perspective, the gardens seem larger than they actually were.
- Ground floor - it's part of the garden with lawns, ponds, flower gardens. All elements of the composition are one unit. Parterre decorated colored sand. Especially spectacular view they have from the height of the building windows.
- Bosquet - group of trees, which serves as a backdrop.
- Topiary - decoratively trimmed bush.
- Arabesque - is the intricate pattern made on the ground floor of the cropped bushes.
- Moat aha - a way of masking walling.
- "Goose paw" - a pattern of 3 or 5 lanes, coming from a single point.
Stealth regular style
Landscaping uses live construction materials, namely plants, water, soil, stones.