If your site was not too smooth, notworry. Slopes can always be done with the help of suitable terraces - direct wide ledges in the form of steps. But remember that they are the vertical sides will need protection from the ground fall. In this article you will learn how to make a reliable and beautiful retaining wall with their hands. It has built with a view to distinguishing territories and highlight certain areas. You can use it to disguise the relief of error or to emphasize its advantages. Landscape designers are using this decorative and artistic element for a long time, and it is gaining popularity every year!
- Variety of retaining walls
- What material is best to choose
- Calculation of the retaining wall
- How to make sustainability walls
- The procedure for construction works
Variety of retaining walls
These structures are divided into functions that they perform. Basically, there are two:
The first deals with decoratingsection. These walls do where there is a small slope, or it is completely absent. The second function is related to soil retention. Construction of a retaining wall can increase the useful area of the plot on natural slopes. In such an artificial platform can accommodate the various elements of landscaping.
What material is best to choose
Depending on the purpose and design of landscape design are built from such materials:
- natural stones;
- concrete and rubble concrete;
- brick and concrete;
- wood elements;
Let us examine each of them separately.
- Retaining wall of stone has a lot of fans. Why? The cause of visual appeal and beauty of the natural material. The most enduring of these concerns granite, basalt and syenite then. A good option is a limestone and sandstone. These include lack of a porous structure due to which the material is stratified with time under the influence of moisture. Gradually this wall begins to grow moss. However, not all the owners consider it a disadvantage - many are quite satisfied with this kind of natural structures.
- If you selected a retaining wall made of concreteheight 30 cm, it is possible to build only after the construction of the foundation. Such a design can have different depth and width. These will be determined depending on the features that the composition is ground, and the shape itself stenki.V when the height does not exceed 30 cm, design can be made without the base. The main thing is that it is recessed into the ground, and was based on a carefully prepared base of gravel and sand. So you prevent undesirable swelling soil during freezing temperatures.
- In terms of the construction of a retaining wall made of bricksIt is the most simple. It is easy to build using a very different type of masonry. It is important to correctly calculate the height and thickness of the structure. For example, if it has a height of more than 60 cm, it will need to be strengthened by means of pilasters.
- It is important to know that not every material can beversatile and suitable for any climate. So retaining walls made of wood is not desirable to build in regions other than prolonged cold and wet period. The fact that the tree is destroyed under the influence of moisture, so it needs to be further protected. For this wooden elements necessarily impregnated using special tools. They can also be pre-burn, and then coat with bitumen.
- An interesting option are the retaining walls of thegabions. Such structures are made of special containers made of solid metal. Her pre-filled with boulders and pebbles. The walls of this kind are attractive element in landscaping and have excellent functional characteristics. Their peculiarity is safe with respect to the environment.
Calculation of the retaining wall
Before you build a strengthening or decorativethe construction of this type, you need to make a preliminary assessment. Only then will you be able to count on its durability. Primarily, it is necessary to take into account the forces that will act on it. This is about:
- own weight construction;
- weights are on it;
- pressure of the soil, fill to the wall;
- the force of friction and adhesion to the ground.
Do not forget that the building may suffer from adverse conditions:
- wind (especially important where the wall height is greater than 2 m);
- the seismic action;
- Vibration (being near the railroad or busy roads);
- swelling of the earth in a frosty time of year;
- storm and flood waters.
Construction of embankment walls should begin after the load is based on the main components of construction - foundation and body. Pay special attention to drainage system and drainage.
How to make sustainability walls
This is one of the most important aspects in the design. In order to eventually design did not move and did not overturned, should heed the following advice:
- to erect a back part of the wall should be a bias towards future backfilling;
- rear wall to adhere well to the ground, it is roughened;
how to make a retaining wall to prevent erosion of the base? Do not forget about the drainage;
- front side walls complement the console - a special projection, which aims - to reduce the possibility of tipping retaining structures;
- soil mass and its pressure can be reduced by placing lightweight hollow items therein.
The procedure for construction works
- Dig a trench, the width and depth of which depends on the height and the wall material. At the bottom poured rubble.
- Tamped stones and covered with sand (10 cm), leveling rake it with a bias toward the slope.
- Along the trench pull a cord to fix the structure. It is made, keeping the indentation on the slope to create a place that will be filled with soil.
Retaining walls, photos of which it is confirmed,may have different levels of irregular shape. Projections - this is the perfect place to put flowers. You can decorate the building in a different way, creating her rock garden, a small stream or pond. Beautifully decorated and reliably made retaining wall - a guarantee of safety and attractiveness of your site! Suppose you succeed!