Peat and wood pellets
Eco-friendly type of solid fuel, calledpellets, Russia circulated a little in contrast to Europe. At the same time, a significant proportion of heating boilers for country houses, stoves and fireplaces manufacturers recently developed is based on the use of them in this type of biofuel. Peat or wood pellets are considered the most promising alternative to coal and gas.
- Fuel pellets and their use
- Varieties pellets
- Production technology
- Is it possible to independent production of pellets
Fuel pellets and their use
Regions where the central gas supply is notorganized in Russia abound, and it is not only detached country houses, but also entire communities, and suburban communities. If the Russian remote places can solve the problem of heating in such conditions in the old logging and harvesting of firewood for the winter, the settlements located close to major cities, such a possibility denied. Search for alternative fuels in areas relevant.
Also, there is the problem of finding fuel andthe owners of cottages and country houses, in addition to choosing to build batteries and a fireplace to enjoy the evenings in contemplation of living fire. Pellets in such cases are a real salvation: with a small ash content and a minimum gas emission from combustion are characterized by high emissivity. Compared with the unprocessed wood pellets land 3-10 times: moisture pellets does not exceed 10%, and rarely reach the wood humidity of 30%. The calorific value of pellets is also in favor of the latter: the combustion of the difference in density of 1.5 turns in the same number of heat transfer performance in comparison.
In addition to use as a fuel in water-heating boilers, small boilers, fireplaces, furnaces, barbecues and wood pellets is another use:
- as extra absorbent for absorbing fluids;
- as a filler in pet toilets.
Visually pellets vary in size and color. The average diameter of granules of 0.5-1 cm in length and 5 cm, which compares favorably to transport the fuel, which is usually carried out in conventional waterproof bags. The flowability and homogeneity of material eliminates the manual labor in the manufacture and packing of granules. Color granulates depends on the material used to create and process of manufacture. The material for the creation of the pellets can be:
- waste processing logs with the bark;
- Waste processing of cereals and husks of sunflower seeds;
- chicken manure;
The last few common species, due tolow profitability of production. The most popular types are wood pellets. Distinguish pellets from sawdust created from good softwood, is not difficult, they shall issue a golden honey color and the smell of fresh saw cut. Wood pellets created from scrap bark, produces gray. Their production process is pulverized biomass pressing without adding gluing substances, only under the influence of high pressure.
Production of pellets a few blackcharacterized by: a method called "torrefikatsiey" or "frying" is the slow heating of the mass in the absence of oxygen. Such pellets in appearance and properties differ little from the charcoal. Black wood pellets visually less attractive than white, but have several advantages:
- ash content in the range of 1%;
- increased heat dissipation due to the density of the material.
As the cost of production black pellets fuel is significantly inferior to extruded, as they require additional equipment for heating the raw material.
Pellets are made of peat lying onsurface peat marshlands by pressing after drying. The technique does not require heating of the material and the application of gluing substances. This technology is considered one of the most promising in terms of development of peat deposits, which brings a lot of trouble in the summer, as a common cause of large-scale forest fires. The industrial development of these fields planned for the coming years, and will be beneficial in commercial terms, and environmentally.
All pellet manufacturers use a single technology, consisting of a few basic steps:
- cleaning and sorting of biological raw material;
- crushing, sometimes extending into several stages, and alternated with additional drying out;
- steam treatment for the isolation of natural adhesives;
- granulinovanie under pressure;
- cleaning and packing of the finished product.
there is a uniform standard in Europe and America,which must comply with the fuel pellets sold in the territory. It severely limits not only the size of the granules, but their moisture content, and contaminants associated dust. In Russia, such standards do not exist, and most of the products sent to the implementation in Europe, where the demand for it is much higher. Therefore, wood pellets domestic production, as a rule, established by the German standard DIN +.
Is it possible to independent production of pellets
The advantages of pellets as an economical andenvironmentally friendly fuel, has been appreciated by many owners of private farms. At the same time the product itself can hardly be called cheap: in spite of the availability of raw material, often throws wood processing enterprises, the production of costly pellets.
Buy pellets pellets benefit onlyin large quantities to give a discount for bulk order from the manufacturer. Owners of private households, whose consumption of pellets is small, see a way to create their own mini-factories for the production of this fuel.
Pellet production is possible with your own handspurchase of the necessary equipment. For home-made pellets often used sawdust, as the available material. It does not cause major difficulties when drying and will not require additional crushing. The main difficulty of handicraft production of pellets from sawdust - granulation process. Buying granulator, usually imported, is not too difficult, but the Russian craftsmen even adapted themselves to do such equipment themselves. The basis is a flat or annular die, which is a form of granules, it is welded to the compression mechanism. Standard electric motor design results in action. This device is able to provide a decent amount of product, sufficient not only for private use, but also for implementation.