Mastering the technology of hydroponics
For quite a rich harvestnot necessary to have fertile land. Almost all crops can be grown in a city apartment, avoiding dirt and soil-specific odor. Because fertilizer is a special solution. Even the experts do not have to bring if hydroponics own hands will be done according to the rules.
- The concept of hydroponics
- The necessary components of the system
- substrate Culture
- Periodic flooding of substrate culture
- Drip irrigation substrate culture
- water culture system
- Technique nutrient layer
- Air Culture (aeroponics)
- Advantages and disadvantages of hydroponics
- Separate production of hydroponics
- plant translation rules from the soil to hydroponics
The concept of hydroponics
It is a system which makes it possible to grow plants without soil. All nutrients are obtained from the solution. For each culture and stage of development require different concentrations.
Hydroponics allows a small areaget rich harvest of environmentally friendly products. At the same time growth to fruiting is greatly reduced. Plants do not have to give energy to the development of the root system to fully eat. Banana for the year can grow up to 2 meters. However, the solution for it will need a lot.
At home hydroponics allowsgrow almost all crops. In our country, the most common way for tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce, strawberries, peppers, mint. Hydroponics is great for indoor plants. The exceptions are plants with root systems that can be easily rot.
The necessary components of the system
Of water and oxygen plants receive air,carbon and hydrogen, and the components of the solution - the set of micro-and macro, accelerating growth, stimulating the development of the root system, improves flowering and the color intensity.
The first group includes: iron, copper, zinc, boron, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum. The second - potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.
Growing vegetables hydroponically possible withoutsubstrate, using only the solution and air, and with the use of crushed granite, expanded clay, gravel, slag, pumice, coarse sand, mineral wool, polyurethane foam.
Depending on the method of supplying fluid to the root system for hydroponics flowers, vegetables and fruits can be:
- Active - used pumps, pumps, ultrasound and other devices;
- passive - fluid moves by capillary forces of water.
Important! The air roots should be more, but you can not prevent them from drying out.
In addition, there are various systems that can be used alone or combined with each other.
This is a simple passive hydroponic setup. The plant is in the container with the substrate, which has openings for the access of the solution. Depth of immersion in a liquid is 1-2 cm.
Important! Continuous monitoring solution level, not to dried roots. Large plants "drink" liquid faster than it can rise.
Periodic flooding of substrate culture
The scheme is similar to the previous one. Only the vessel has a double bottom and the composition is filled periodically.
hydroponic equipment for this system include:
- Pump (supplemented with a timer), located in the lower compartment container;
- outlet pipe, derived in the upper reservoir;
- an inlet tube for draining excess fluid back into the lower compartment.
The roots of the plants are in the air. Only a small amount of liquid is on the bottom of the substrate to maintain humidity.
Then, several times a day (usually 2 to 8)Depending on the climate, type of crop and the substrate, the timer includes a pump for 10-15 minutes. The filler is flooded with solution level to the upper containment tube.
After turning off the liquid is drained back into the lower compartment. Air is updated, the roots are saturated with oxygen.
Important! This method is simple and reliable. But it should not be used in areas where electricity is cut off for a long time, because it provided for the functioning of the system timers. The roots can dry out.
The system is suitable for hydroponics and without substrate.
Drip irrigation substrate culture
Feed fertilizer for hydroponics is carried outadjustable through a dropper. Fluid flows continuously or periodically hits the surface of the substrate under the base of the stem of the plant. Two methods are possible:
- When reversing the excess solution, which did not have time to absorb the plant, it flows back into the tank and re-used.
- When Irreversible prepared composition is used once. This allows you to accurately observe the proportions are micro and macro elements and avoid the change in pH level.
The system is easy to produce from conventional medicine dropper.
water culture system
The capacity is not sinking tray towhich plants are fixed clamps (if necessary). The roots are constantly in a special liquid. With the assimilation of nutrients necessary to change the culture solution, and to saturate it with oxygen (aerate). With the necessary functions copes an ordinary aquarium compressor.
The system perfectly suited for water-demanding crops (eg, lettuce). But for vegetables is better to use another method.
Technique nutrient layer
For the system requires extensive equipmentcapacity of small height. The solution is fed continuously circulating brook depth of 1-2 cm. It turns out that moving the liquid covers a large area. It is mixed with air nutrient medium. The solution is saturated with oxygen without the compressor and feeds the roots.
Place the jar is better at a slight incline.
Air Culture (aeroponics)
The roots are in the airspace periodically subjected to spraying to prevent them from drying out.
Nutritional composition is sprayed in aerosol form. At home, the system can be made using the parts for the ultrasonic humidifier.
Advantages and disadvantages of hydroponics
Crops grown using hydroponics, nothingIt does not differ from soil counterparts. Just use a different way of presenting the elements necessary for their growth. In taste and aromatic qualities they are also identical if the hydroponic solution is prepared correctly.
Even more popular system gives an impressive list of benefits.
- Cultures grow strong and healthy in a few times faster than in the ground, better fruit.
- All the nutrients are absorbed in full, and not go into the earth.
- Fruits are not accumulate nitrate radionuclides, heavy metals and other harmful elements that are in the soil.
- It eliminates the need for watering plants. It is much easier to control the water flow.
- Do not apply pesticides to avoid attack by pests and fungi.
- Eliminate the problems associated with the removal of weeds and loosening and fertilizing. The solution itself is the fertilizer.
- Cultures do not suffer from a lack of oxygen, which occurs when grown in soil. They do not dry out and do not pereuvlazhnyat.
- The apartment is free from dirt and the smell of the earth, as when using soil.
- To get a good harvest requires a relatively small area.
- Do not traumatize the roots of perennial plants when transplanting them into the ground.
- Ultimately, the cost is less than for growing crops in soil.
There are some disadvantages, but the disadvantages of them can hardly be described.
- Initially, it is necessary to invest more money than buying soil and other necessary materials.
- Before how to grow hydroponics is necessary to study the theoretical issues and install the equipment. We'll have to spend more time than the usual method.
Separate production of hydroponics
The owner, who knows how to handle a hammer, a screwdriver and a drill, effortlessly able to master the simple rules of installation.
You need to buy an air compressor aquarium, a plastic container and a piece of foam. At the roots of the plants should not be exposed to light, so the vessel wall can be painted or foil wrap.
The foam cut holes to accommodatepots therein (alternatively, one can use cups or milk products from cut plastic bottles). It is necessary to provide for such a distance that when sprouting plants then do not interfere with each other. The cups make holes.
You can place each plant separately. The preferred use gidropoty - pots for hydroponics. But even independent production will bring only pleasant chores.
It should be indoor and outdoor pots. The first makes a hole for admission of fluid to the roots. Sales have pots, visually reminiscent of a miniature version of the paper basket. Outdoor water and should be opaque. The distance between the bottoms -. Not less than 6 cm inner pot should be covered with water to a quarter. The liquid level indicator may be used a glass tube.
Then fill the tank should be planted in the substrate, and these plants.
Important! Filling necessarily sift, disinfected with potassium permanganate solution. Then rinse with clean water. The measure is necessary for the destruction of pathogens.
The solution for hydroponics is purchased at a specialty store. The label or package insert detailed rules for the use and the necessary concentration for any crop.
Additional lighting useOptionally, if it is located on a windowsill hydroponics. The shaded areas need to set different power lamps, depending on the plant species, varieties and stages of development.
plant translation rules from the soil to hydroponics
The procedure is carried out in the spring, summer orearly autumn only for young crops. Roots for 2 hours, it is necessary to hold it in warm water, then wash off the soil, remove the rotten elements and disinfect. Put the inner pot and the substrate to fill in slightly higher than when planting in soil.
The outer container is filled with clean waterthe required amount. It fits the inner pot. A week later, the water should be replaced with a solution. When new roots (it will be seen through the opening of the inner pot), the liquid level is reduced to provide an air layer.
From the first to the fourth week is better to use half-strength solution, in the second month - a standard and then to increase the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by 30%.
Important! Plants can not make the open space (terrace, garden), because it can disrupt the water balance and the composition of the solution.
Growing crops using hydroponics is gaining popularity around the world. This is not surprising. After all, the method allows to obtain a healthy diet with less material and labor costs.