Aeroponics - a method of culturingplants without soil. Is a relatively new, it has already found its wide application in the cultivation of vegetables and, of course, has a great future. This approach requires special equipment, but also with his own hands aeroponics possible.
- What is aeroponics
- Equipment for aeroponics
- How to build their own hands aeroponics
- Aeroponics with an air compressor
- Ultrasonic aeroponics
- Preparation for aeroponics solution
- Advantages aeroponics
What is aeroponics
Under this name, understand cultivation of plantswithout using a substrate. The roots are in this case in an air space - this is the main difference from aeroponics hydroponics in which they are immersed in the solution. How to get the nutrients to the plants? To do this, the roots regularly irrigated with solutions containing all necessary components. Watering is done not jet, and in an aerosol droplet size of which depends on the atomizing device. To the roots will not dry out, so irrigation is repeated on a regular basis, every few minutes, even seconds there.
The first method was developed and published by VM Artsikhovsky in 1911. However, over the next 80 years mention of it are extremely rare. It is only since the 1990s cultivation in the airspace have been widely used in laboratory practice. Since 2000, the aeroponic installation of steel used in agriculture, and is rapidly gaining popularity.
Now, this method is considered to be environmentally friendlysafe and highly effective, allowing to receive much higher yields at lower costs. However, it is not only used on an industrial scale. You can buy or make your own hands aeroponics miniature, designed for home use.
Equipment for aeroponics
Consider how to make their own hands aeroponics with the water pump. For a small device installation need the following items.
- Tank of nutrient solution.
- Flat container with a lid. It must be opaque fact that the light in the solution began to develop a blue-green algae, plants competing for nutrients and air, as well as their products of its toxic activity.
- Flexible hoses. It is important to choose the correct diameter, because all the joints must be airtight. Hoses, nozzles, adapters and various elements of the connection is easy to find in stores plumbing.
- Injectors. Choosing nozzles for aeroponics, should take into account the biological characteristics of plants. Suffice coarse roots that require abundant moisture, it is possible to irrigate large droplets having a diameter greater than 100 micrometers. Universal mikrodzhety, water spray mist almost: this method of delivery makes the nutrient solution as accessible as possible to the roots.
- Actually pump, a membrane or diaphragm. If you choose this device will need a creative approach. Many people try to use the aquarium equipment, but its capacity is not sufficient even for the smallest installations. But the car are suitable perfectly. Pumps for wiper and motor compressor has long been successfully used by amateurs bessubstratnogo growing plants. There are also special pumps for aeroponics, and the cost of domestic production models may be only a few thousand.
- Timer. This equipment aeroponics can be mechanical or electronic. The former are more simple and reliable, but the minimum step size for them is 15 minutes, an interval for the number of systems is too large. Spraying the roots of young plants which may be 5 minutes each, and only with the growth of this gap can be increased to 20 minutes to mature plants.
- In addition, many of these models are loudtick. The weak point of the electronic timers - their batteries, often turns out that to buy the spare part is extremely difficult. When you purchase a timer should not choose the cheapest model - they are very easily damaged, so that the savings in this case can not be.
How to build their own hands aeroponics
The pump timer is connected to the tank. Aeroponics nozzles installed in the bottom of the container, and each of them is fixed via multiple hose adapter. These connections have to be sealed, which you can use silicone. The second end of the hose attached to the pump. Installation is ready, it is necessary to plant the plants. It is necessary that they do not come into contact with plastic, because the hard material can damage the tender shoots and roots.
Directly to plants can covermount using pots without a bottom. Another option - use of a plate of foam plastic or foam rubber. The size of the holes is chosen very carefully, because the plant is necessary to feel comfortable and do not fall through down. The nutrient solution is poured into the tank, hence he will be supplied by a pump to the nozzles and sprayed on the roots of plants.
Aeroponics with an air compressor
It looks like an option, but on the other driving force,Provides a solution to the roots. Instead of the pump here must take an external air compressor and connect it to the tank. And the tank, and a hose, and all compounds, thus, must be strictly hermetic, as it is necessary that the compressor work created within the pressurized reservoir. As with any other device, having to deal with the increased pressure needed sensor detecting its changes, as well as solenoid valves, which are installed in front of each nozzle. Such a method is useful if you intend creating aeroponic installation of small size, for example, for the cultivation of dill, parsley and other greens.
This is another, perhaps the most originalspraying method of nutrient solution. This approach has long been practiced in climate control devices, for example, so-called "fog generators" are an example of an ultrasonic aeroponics. Passage of the acoustic wave through the liquid causes the formation of cavitation bubbles therein, resulting in air ejected liquid fine particles. ultrasonic wave is generated in such plants piezoceramic element, which is a flat membrane or disc.
This aeroponics has some limitations. The fact that the temperature of the mist produced by sonication, can not be below 40 ° C, and is twice higher than the optimum temperature of the solution. Therefore it is necessary to put more effort into pre-cooled liquid, which significantly reduces the productivity of the process. Furthermore, aeroponics such solutions can be used only low concentrations which do not exceed 500 ppm. Therefore, with the help of ultrasound may only grow seedlings or young greens.
Preparation for aeroponics solution
The composition of elements in the regular admissionneeded by plants, more or less known and worked for different groups of plants. But the number of components and receipts each time mode must be selected by trial and error. The fact is that once on the roots, the solution droplets begin to dry out, and therefore varies and the concentration of salts. In selecting the optimal mode of play the main role of observation of plants: Growth intensity preservation turgor, changes in the color of leaves, etc.
Main components of the nutrient solution - nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium (N, P, K). However, apart from this, we need many other elements, and in a form accessible to the roots of their assimilation. Typically nutritional composition includes mixtures of calcium salts such as calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate, copper and zinc citrate, ferrous sulfate or chloride. There are detailed recipes that are painted all the components and indicate their approximate number. These formulations are designed mainly for hydroponics, they can be made and a starting point to create aeroponic system.
For preparation of the nutrient solution is betternot use tap and distilled water or rain water, it will know exactly concentration and to avoid undesirable impurities. Salt are dissolved each separately, then mixed and only the amount of water added to volume. Pre-soften hard water by means of special filters, tablets or by infusion over 12 hours with peat based on 700 g of 10 liters. Keep salt preferably in a dark dry place in tightly closed containers.
Fans technique called aeroponics most advanced technique and technology of the future.
- The absence of the substrate avoids the usual gardening dirt and dust.
- It is easy to solve the problem of pests.
- Unlimited availability of oxygen to the roots contributes to their rapid development, which, in turn, provides a set of rapid sprout biomass.
- In terms of the built environment is easy to pick the climatic conditions that are optimal for a given culture.
- Regardless of external conditions can get several harvests per year.
- Many components of the care of plants are automated, and the rest - are minimal. Before the new season is enough to flush the system and remove the old plants.
- Compared with traditional methods of growing plants, aeroponics requires much less space. Furthermore, such an installation can be done easily multi-tiered.
As a result, the final total advantage of aeroponic crops can be considered as their higher yields.
It is a relatively young andtech technique for growing aeroponics, nevertheless, available for everyone. All supplies can easily be purchased at a hardware store. Not so difficult to collect and aeroponics with their own hands. Here, a wide open space for creativity, because this setting can be adjusted only one pot or be a complex variety of plants branched irrigation system. Experience needed for successful, however, it recruited very quickly, and errors due to the plasticity of living organisms, are not fatal. Constructing aeroponics, you can start to provide the family table with fresh herbs throughout the year, as well as the acquisition of self-confidence, and go to the creation of their own business.