All of the soil in the country
Soil - one of the main factors determining theplant condition. Therefore, the yield on its composition depends directly. The particle size, acidity, humus content, the presence of microorganisms - all this determines the success of horticulture. Give enough attention to the soil in the country can solve a wide range of problems and radically change the nature and success of gardening.
- What are the soil
- How to change the acidity of the soil
- How to create a fertile soil
What are the soil
Their other name - lungs. Mineral particles and humus in these soils is small, so they are easy to handle, but they do not retain water and not particularly fertile, because the nutrients are washed out of them constantly. Growing plants in such conditions requires too frequent fertilization. It is much more effective to work on the texture of sandy soil in the country and begin to regularly add to its bonding and sealing components such as clay and drilling flour, peat. Adding humus and compost contributes to increase the number of microorganisms, which are also beneficial to the soil conditions. In addition to these measures, and require periodic mineral fertilizing.
Such soils are close to the sand, but they are bettersuitable for the cultivation of plants. Their chemical composition is balanced and they richer microorganisms. Good air permeability and moisture content prevents leaching of nutrients, and ensure their delivery to the roots drying out is limited to the top layer, there is no characteristic skin formation clays. They are also easy to get warm. Usually loam is improved by making peat, manure and small quantities of fertilizer.
Such soil is also called heavy. They form their very small particles that clump together and form a viscous mass, difficult to process. The painful breaking sticky lumps on the chopper - the usual destiny of gardeners working in the clay soil. As the particles adjacent to each other very closely, the movement of air between them too difficult, poorly decomposed organic matter and microorganisms are scarce. Therefore, clay soils are also characterized by poverty.
Oddly, but in the clay soil plantssuffer from a lack of moisture. It would seem that: the substrate retains water, what more do you want? However, because the particles are too snug, poorly water moves inside the clay soil and plants to simply does not reach. Moreover, the roots suffer from low temperatures. The compactness of the thickness of the clay bad warming, and its lower layers remain cold. It also slows down all biological processes and chemical reactions.
Improving fertility of the soil is clayey,mainly in giving it a more loose structure. To make this peat and sand. Addition of 30-40 kg of sand per square meter. m greatly increases its thermal conductivity, water mobility, ease of processing. Besides useful to add manure and compost, it will quickly increase its wealth of nutrients. But in mineral dressing clay soils are usually not needed. However, the clay can vary significantly in chemical composition, so in some special cases the analysis is appropriate.
The properties occupy an intermediateposition between sand and clay, while possessing the best qualities of both. They represent the best option for gardening, have a good graininess and lumpiness, easily handled, and keep their structure. Organic fertilizers in a soil is only necessary to maintain soil fertility and mineral generally not required. If in this respect there are any doubts, you can make a special biochemical analysis.
This variant is relatively rare andIt requires an enormous effort in order to achieve a good harvest. However, residents of many mountain areas have made significant progress in the domestication of their territories. So it's not hopeless. First, a lot of clearing of the largest stones. Then fertile land just imported or created in the course of several years of compost, ash, green manure plants. If the site is sloping, it shall form the terraces that reduce the negative effects of weathering and erosion of the soil.
The main disadvantage of soil - their poverty nitrogen. Moreover, they have the ability to absorb and retain water like a sponge, so it is necessary to change not only their chemical compositions but also the structure. Therefore, improvement of such soil begin to make coarse sand or clay flour. Then you need to add phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, to improve the content of these elements. And, finally, peat soil is enriched with ingredients rich in microorganisms. This may be manure, compost or special microbiological preparations.
How to change the acidity of the soil
Another measure that should be consideredwhen creating a garden or a vegetable garden in the country - is the soil acidity. This is determined by the presence indicator of hydrogen ion and is referred to as pH. There are acidic soil (pH = 3-5,5), neutral and alkaline (with high values of pH = 7,5-9). It is important to understand that the ideal acidity does not exist. Each plant has its own individual preferences. And if the majority of gardeners will be upset to learn that they are the owners of acid soils, the heathers lovers will be happy, because otherwise these plants even have to water marshes acid.
The most versatile range of weakly acidic soilsto slightly alkaline. In order to determine this figure, you can use the services of biochemical laboratories, buy a set of litmus or just watch your portion. Horsetail, sorrel and mosses are indicators of increased acidity, and larkspur and field mustard point to an alkaline environment.
Soil acidity can be changed usingsimple manipulations. In the case of alkaline reaction, in order to lower the pH slightly deep plowing use with gypsum - calcium sulfate. Good results are given and some green manure crops, such as alfalfa. Limp making the soil can increase the pH of additives such as dolomite flour, slaked lime or wood ash. It is advisable to carry out this process gradually, starting with the amount of about 10 kg per one hundred square meters. And from the green manure in increasing the pH to help the landing of lupine.
How to create a fertile soil
What does the fertility of the soil depends on? On this characteristic is influenced by many factors, from climate to the composition of soil animals. Under natural conditions, the soil is formed for decades and centuries. It is obvious that the vast majority of truckers are not willing to wait that long, so there are many ways to increase the fertility of the soil for several years. In addition, the land needs rest and recovery after growing crops, especially if it is several years nursed annuals, very hard to absorb nutrients. A few simple steps to help create and maintain a high level of soil fertility and getting rich harvest without chemicals.
- Proper crop rotation, the main principle of whichIt lies in the fact that almost any annual crops can be grown in the same place no more than once every 4 years. Cultures alternation is made in view of their compatibility. For example, greens are not planted after the carrots and cucumbers, and squash - after tomatoes.
- Using worms. It turns out that these animals have already received the status of domesticated and became a trusted friend in the same person as in the old days - the horse. Using California subspecies earthworms allows in a few months to process a huge amount of organic matter in high-quality black soil.
- Adding natural fertilizers. This method is tested for thousands of years: manure, compost and ash has long and faithfully serve the farmers. Particularly good results were obtained when combining fertilization with the rest - not planting a flower bed the whole season and, at the same time, handle it as usual. The next season, this bed can give a good harvest, even for the most demanding crops.
- Sowing green manure crops-plants. These include mainly annuals, which have the ability to accumulate large amounts of starch, protein and nitrogen. The most commonly used green manure belongs to the family of legumes (clover, peas, lupins, beans), cruciferous (mustard, rape, radish, winter cress), grains (wheat, oats, rye). In autumn these plants are mowed and removed, and dug, thus enriching the soil.
Gardening and horticulture in the country can be safelyassigned to one of the most common traditional occupations. And there is no need to look for some cutting-edge agronomic methods of cultivation of the soil and increase fertility. Simple and long-known soil enrichment methods allow to harvest not only rich, but also beneficial to health.