Well in the country with their own hands
Without water in the garden area can not do. Today, more often there are rural villages, equipped with centralized water supply systems. But even in these villages can see the wells. Many gardeners claim that the well water is better, fresher, tastier. In addition, the country is well insurance fund, because the overall system is not protected from damage and interruptions in the water supply, which are associated with an increase in the number of customers and increased loads. And in areas where there is no centralized system and open reservoirs are located far away, the well is the only source of water.
- The device of the well at the cottage
- Where to dig a well
- Preparation for construction
- Equipment and tools
- Making homemade rings for wells
- Preparation of concrete solution
- The method of installation of the Rings
- Completion: bleeding, formation of the bottom
- Making a well in the country
The device of the well at the cottage
Well it consists of 3 parts. To see this, just type in a search engine "well at the cottage Photo"And proposed to see the results. The upper part is called the head part; average, the longest part - the main trunk; the part that is in the water - water inlet. Sometimes even make the buzzer - the lowest part of the building, where water accumulates. Headroom to protect the water from dust, grass, dead leaves, insects, rain and snow. The main trunk prevents freezing water in winter. The water intake is stored water.
The depth of the well and the device in the country depend on thethe amount of water that is consumed per day of water. If the object is built in shallow soils, the water inlet is placed as far as possible and make the buzzer. Thus, the technical indicators of the well are directly dependent on the characteristics of the groundwater at a specific site area.
Where to dig a well
If a person plans to dig a well in the country,then he has to decide on the venue. The first method that allows to detect a treasured place, is called dowsing. Experts analyzed the amplitude of rotation of the special framework of wire and determine where groundwater is located. In most cases, these predictions come true, but the scientific evidence the method is not. Therefore, it is often referred to as a real quackery.
The second method - less mysterious. On the territory of a country site dig exploratory wells and boreholes. In addition, to determine the depth of water can communicate with their neighbors. If all of the same depth of the wells, then your case will be a similar pattern. Digging can be anywhere!
If the water level is the same, the water-bearingPlayground - horizontal and aquifers extend to several square kilometers. But if next to the site (300 meters) wells not, guess it correctly the first time will be difficult.
Things to remember:
- Dig decorative well the country is preferable to solid ground, but, unfortunately, it is not always possible.
- The well is positioned at the maximum distance from all possible sources of pollution (more than 30 meters away from the animals, and toilet seats with manure).
- Well you need to dig closer to the water consumers, but not less than 5 meters from the house.
- If the land is not too dry, you should choose a well under the highest place.
Preparation for construction
To dig a well in the country at any time. But there are some features that are associated with seasonal changes in groundwater level. Depth varies depending on the amount of precipitation (rain and snow). The highest level of the aquifer reaches during the spring snowmelt. Therefore, the flood period is considered to be the most unfavorable for the construction of the well.
Equipment and tools
Hardly anyone abandon a well on the site. How to Make a well in the country? Not every cottager decide to build it yourself. This case certainly is not easy. It requires a certain knowledge, skills and ingenuity. But it would be a wish! Any owner can make their own well of reinforced concrete rings.
To manually dig a well, you need patience and the necessary equipment. And what is necessary for the construction of:
- Various shovels;
- buckets of 12 - 30 liters;
- winch, which is designed for a load of about 600 kg, for lowering concrete rings;
- a device for lifting the ground;
- trolley for transportation of soil;
- electric saw;
- concrete mixer or utensils for mixing the solution;
- pump and several hoses for pumping water;
- hammer to work with heavy soils;
- carrying and electrical lighting fixtures;
- for adjustment of the rings in place;
- a hammer;
- cable or chain.
Buy ready-made rings are often expensive,so it's easier to make them yourself. Preferably a lightweight version of the design - the diameter of close to 90 centimeters with a wall thickness of 7 cm and a height of 90 centimeters. Materials for rings and formwork: gravel, cement, sand, fittings, grease, nuts and bolts, iron plates.
Making homemade rings for wells
On the flat surface of the shield should be laidthick plywood or boards. board width should be about 30 cm larger than the diameter reinforced concrete rings. For reliability, and ease of use formwork made of 2 layers of roofing iron.
To the length of the iron bars you want to addabout 4 centimeters to connect them to the rings. For this to be drilled at the ends of the strips on each side of the hole 2, the bolts pass through them and fix them with nuts, which are usually placed on the outside formwork. Bolts recommended lubricated with grease before concreting.
Formwork must be secured on a shield with 3- 4 wooden struts. To increase the strength of concrete rings, made use of an annular valve diameter up to 8 mm and vertical racks. Then you need to put the two rings at the height of the formwork.
Preparation of concrete solution
Cement taken 1 part clean sand - 3 partswashed gravel - 4. The smaller the rubble, the better. For the two rings, which will be located on the bottom of the shaft, the ratio of these components is a 1.5 to 2 to 4. A solution of the concrete should be prepared in an iron bath tub or using the mixer. Cement and sand thoroughly mixed, pour a little water. The thicker concrete solution, the quality of the ring will be higher.
Then you need to add to the resulting mixture,gravel and again mix thoroughly. With the help of a shovel or scoop to fill the formwork solution and well compacted bar. When it is filled approximately one-quarter height, should be deleted armature ring and set on the outer circumference of the reinforcing strut, which have a height of 80 - 85 centimeters. It takes about 6 - 8 racks. Then it is to fill three-quarters and the deletion of the ring. Remains of the solution discarded.
Ring to obtain a uniform thickness informwork made of wooden inserts insert 5 to 7 centimeters long. They are removed after the removal of the formwork. As long as the concrete hardens, it is impossible to shake. Decking versed in 8-10 days, the ring gently rises to the edge is rolled to another place and falls into two rails on the ground. It is completely hardened after 20 days. The rest of the rings are made similarly. Their number is determined based on the depth of the aquifer (6 - 12 rings).
The method of installation of the Rings
When all the rings are ready, you can starttheir installation. To do this, dig a circular hole with a diameter of up to 150 centimeters, put it in the ring and undermine the soil inside. When under his weight come down to the ring excavated level, you need to set the next and repeat the whole process again.
If the rings are no longer under its own weightgo down, it means that there was a deviation from the vertical axis - the rings are gone aside. To continue, it is recommended to the upper ring lay a wooden shield and it can jot down as many stones and earth. Rings will precipitate after some time, and you can continue.
After placing two rings need to liftmechanism. On both sides of the rings need to install two of the tripod and place a thick pipe with a diameter of 50 millimeters. On her arm is fixed with a roller or a pulley, which is being transferred through the chain. One end of the chain should be lowered into the well in order to raise to the surface a bucket of soil, and on the other you need to attach a "dog" for hanging buckets.
Then you need a ring to seal the cement-sandsolution, carefully closing up all the joints on the outside and inside. The top ring above ground level should rise by about 40 centimeters. When the digging of water wells in the country it is not necessary to stop.
Completion: bleeding, formation of the bottom
It is necessary to go until the fast startscoming water. For it is common to use a conventional pumping subsurface pump. After pumping out of water should delve further 50 centimeters. However, when the water level comes quickly opened and the aquifer for a sufficient supply of the necessary amount of water depth, can cease operation.
When filling the well namyvali lot of quicksand -fine or silty water-saturated sand. It must be pumped pump. From the first time can not be completely pumped sand, so the procedure must be repeated after a month.
At the top of the second ring is recommended to leaveopening for the pipeline, which will house the water flow. The bottom of the well should be ready to sleep well washed large stones, and send down on top of a layer of washed crushed stone or gravel. Around the upper ring should make a clay castle.
Making a well in the country
After completion of the installation of many ringsgardeners wonder - how to decorate the well at the cottage? Above the well can make a house that will protect the water from getting into the rain and all kinds of garbage. In its simplest form, build a wooden house with a knob on the outside and a gable roof. Then constructing hinged doors, through which a bucket is raised and lowered by a chain. At the well, you can build a crane.
Making a well in the country does not require a largefantasy. Concrete ring made stoning artificial or natural stone, as well as brick or twine log house. You can close the ring on top of the two hinged covers and gable roof, and the gate to put over the well on massive pillars. Roofing material is natural or soft tile, copper sheet, wooden shingles or conventional roofing iron.
Thus, the well is still oneof the most common variants of the water supply of country houses. Properly designed and equipped with a pump, it is capable of icy water cottage dwellers.