Well water with his own hands
If a dacha (there is) notsupplied with water, it is necessary to make it obligatory, because the water can not be without. Among the most popular methods of obtaining water in a country house is a water well. This method is quite interesting and rational, as well on the water with his own hands - a double benefit: saving money and production of quality drinking water.
- Signs of clean drinking water
- Types of water wells, their differences
- Water "in the sand"
- Well "in the limestone"
- Pipes for the casing of the wellbore
- Equipment for arranging source
- How well is being drilled with his own hands
Signs of clean drinking water
As well in the area equipped for the purpose of extraction of water from the bowels of the earth clean, it must be determined to know this is the "purity" for some parameters:
- clear water layer at least 30 cm;
- nitrate levels - less than 10 mg per liter;
- less than ten coliform per liter of water;
- assessment of the smell and taste - 3 points.
To obtain reliable information about the quality of water is needed to make an examination in the sanitary-epidemiological service.
Types of water wells, their differences
Underground water contained mainly in tworocks: sand and limestone. Also in the bound state observed its content in clay, loam, but extraction of water from these species for domestic and industrial use is extremely low.
Therefore, the water for domestic use is obtained from wells with slaughter in water-saturated sand or fractured limestone.
Water "in the sand"
These water wells often have equippedtheir area are people who quite enough use of 0.5 cubic meters of water per hour (for cooking and watering in summer). Typically, the depth of such wells ranges of 10-35 meters, at least - 40-45 m.
Drilling of wells "on the sand" comes before the firstaquifer and not more than two days. Durability of such a well is dependent on pumping equipment and the reliability of the grid casing. When used correctly, water well will faithfully serve up to 15 years, well and at high intensity operation, this period is reduced to 8 years.
To drill "on sand" well usedcasing (galvanized or black metal), they are interconnected threaded connection or welding. It will take another pipe filter, it duplicates the inside casing string. In the filter pipe diameter smaller than the casing, and at the end it has a hole through which water flows to the surface. The opening is equipped to purify water from sand special filter (metal mesh). But if the well will be used periodically, then after a few years, the filters clogged with silt and should be replaced.
Since the source of water supply in thiswell - upper water-bearing layer of soil, the purity and high quality water indicators can not be. Therefore, 3-4 days after drilling it is desirable to pass the test for bacteriological and chemical analysis.
- low cost of drilling;
- quick and easy installation of the equipment required for the arrangement.
- the uncertainty of the exact location of the aquifer. In the neighboring areas you can easily find the water in the sand, or may not be on its own;
- the possibility of contamination of the aquifer;
- smaller service life when compared to the artesian well;
- fluctuation of groundwater level.
Well "in the limestone"
Best option - drilling artesianwell before upgrading the site or before the start of construction of the house, because the equipment for drilling and related equipment take up much space. Equipment artesian well takes about 1-2 weeks, and drilling carried out to achieve in the limestone aquifer (50-200 m).
The service life of such wells will dependthe quality of the casing and the pipe diameter depends performance. Today, plastic pipes are quite popular, although used and steel. Steel pipes are connected by welding or threading. But welding is not the best option, because the joints, there is a high probability of corrosion. Also undesirable phenomenon have microscopic holes that still remain at the weld, they gradually increase, and thus opens the way for the entry of dirt into the water.
Drilled borehole washed upvisual appearance of clean water, as well as to the well "in the limestone" drawn from a depth of passport indicating the height of the water level and other key features.
Advantages of a well:
- known in advance about the depth;
- very high fluid loss. Artesian well water can provide a country house with a swimming pool, sauna and several bathrooms, as well as it can be used for gardening;
- constant water level of occurrence;
- installation of efficient pump;
- High quality water because a largethe depth of the water is almost not exposed to the negative impact of pollution sources. Therefore artesian water does not require additional cleaning and disinfection.
But the shortcomings can be attributed only to atangible cost of the entire spectrum of work, and with his own hands to make it impossible because of the hardness of the dense sediment and considerable depth. The water extracted from artesian wells, may have a relatively high mineral content. Because, despite the apparent purity, laboratory studies of its structure are required.
Pipes for the casing of the wellbore
The casing for the well provideschannel integrity by which water is transported from the underground mineral resources. And integrity should be ensured during the entire period of operation, it means that the pipe must not succumb to corrosion and be resistant to dynamic loads at the casing. At the present time, as the casing used steel, asbestos cement and plastic pipes.
The use of steel pipes excellent solution forintensive and very important projects, as well depth is large, and complex geological conditions. Of course, the greater the drilling depth, respectively, and increasing the thickness of the pipe wall.
Pipes of polymer often used forterrain with simple geological conditions for drilling shallow generation. Plastic pipes can be used for well casing up to 10 m, corrosion resistance, they provide excellent, and the project does not require significant financial investments.
As for the asbestos cement pipes, they havea number of positive characteristics: well will not corrode and "cluttered", and their price is very attractive. But there are specific limitations - this is a brittle material, which does not stand up to excessive hydrostatic pressure, so these pipes should be equipped with only shallow wells.
Important: savings here is misplaced, because the additional cost of re-drilling wells are not wanted.
Equipment for arranging source
Long and narrow hole in the ground is not yetindependent source of water supply. In order to keep the water became safe to drink, the well has to be undeveloped. It provides for such equipment for wells:
- caisson - is needed for maintenance of the water source, it protects pipes from freezing, besides a kind of tank installation;
- headroom for the well - cast iron or plastic construction that prevents the ingress of dirt into the well through the mouth;
- pump - water pumps;
- accumulator - smoothing hammer and maintaining the pressure in the system.
Construction of wells is an important process, because its functionality is dependent on the quality of selected equipment and correct installation.
How well is being drilled with his own hands
Artesian water is certainly very good, butif there are no funds for its well arrangement to receive it, you can use the money to make a profitable option and drilling with their own hands. The thing is, though not easy, but quite feasible.
The design of the well defined by the number of casing strings, lowered down to their size (length and diameter) and space intervals cementing.
So well with your hands begins with diggingpit - the size of 1.5 to 1.5, the depth of about 2 meters. This step is necessary to prevent the shedding of the upper layer of the earth (very fragile). The walls of the pit are edged boards.
The next step - preparing the rig and speakers. The most common uses of the derrick tripod. It is made of logs (15-20 cm diameter), between which is fixed winch.
Drilling column - six or more rods, whichextend to each other by coupling transition as a result it has the form of a single pipe. The column was lowered to the bottom hole completes the tool - drill bit, which is kind of depends on the type of soil. As for the penetration of the drill bit may require elaboration:
- drill-spoon is used for connected clayey soils (sandy loam, loam). For one notch it deepens to 30-40 cm;
- drill - drill bit for solid ground;
- bailer - to extract water-saturated sand, gravel, pebbles, gravel with sand filling, drilling loose sludge. It is simple, pneumatic, piston, clamshell.
Then you need to connect the first drill rodwith a rope thrown over the winch and attach the sink to the bottom hole end of the drill rod head. Stange-head should be loaded on the proposed drilling site. It joins the second, then successively the other As the penetration to the first bar. Depending on the soil at the bottom will need to be changed in the process of drilling the drill head.
Important: on the bar before the drilling process it is necessary to make a mark at 60 cm When reaching this mark the drilling tool is lifted and cleaned..
Drilling of the well should be done by two people, so the work will be faster and more comfortable. Buryat until the impermeable layer. The well is then thoroughly cleaned bailer.
Then descends to the bottom of the well filterthe remaining space is filled with coarse sand, fine gravel. You can then proceed to the beautification shufra under the caisson and the installation of electrical pump and water-lifting pipe.
Well, you can show her in the final stageimagination and build a wooden shed or put the frame with fine painted cover. There are no restrictions, as well should not only function well, but also have an aesthetic appearance.