How to make the cellar with their hands
To ensure the quality and longstorage of products without compromising their taste, is to build a cellar. Depending on the level of groundwater and freezing erected ground, buried and poluzaglublenny cellar with their hands. This building is a mandatory attribute of a country house or cottage land. Many owners of the cellars combined with garages inspection pits, Achieving a small square acceptable results. Often cellar erect a wine to collect your own set of these noble drinks.
- Cellar: variety and purpose
- Selecting a location for the cellar
- How to pick up the material
- Cellar with his own hands? Easily
- Roy pit under the rules
- Specificity arrangement of walls
- Comfortable floor and stage
- To construct the roof and the door
- Wiring in the cellar
- Features cellar waterproofing
- Methods of Ventilation Organization
- Operation of the finished buildings
Cellar: variety and purpose
In the cellar you can store virtually all products. The main advantage of this construction compared to a simple storage area is the fact that it can contain salt and fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as all sorts of conservation. Throughout the year, the temperature in the cellar is maintained near 5 - 7 degrees Celsius, which is commensurate with the overall temperature inside the refrigerator.
There are several types of cellars. The most simple in construction structure is an earth cellar. On his site you can also build a cellar in the garage with his hands, pogrebitsey cellar, ground cellar, a stone vault, vegetable storage shed, a structure with boning, storage under the summer kitchen, poluzaglublenny block, blocked cellar, recessed camera on a slope, trim the sample.
The list goes on - shoulder, "hut"Finnish Glacier, an underground cellar. To see what it looks like one of these cellars, type in a search engine query "cellar with their hands photo" and then view the options available.
Selecting a location for the cellar
Construction should begin with a cellar selectionspace. The most optimal option is a dry area that is located on a hill. This place will be pre-protected from moisture, so do not need waterproofing.
Meltwater and rain water will not accumulate nearwall storage, and will flow down the slope, leaving the cellar and content of the product in the dry. Building depth may vary depending on the owner's wishes. The standard is the same rate of 2.5 - 3 meters.
At the same time you need to decide what kind ofcellar to be built: cellar under the house or garage, or a separate building. The construction of the cellar at any construction is much better than the construction of separate facilities because such facilities will not take the extra territory. The cellar under the house has a convenient entrance, which is especially important in winter.
How to pick up the material
When deciding how to make the cellar with their hands, it is worthto think about the materials. To choose the right material, it is worth considering a few aspects: soil type, which is determined on the eyes, and the groundwater level, which can be consulted in the garden association.
The walls can be made of different materials -red brick, rubble, wood, concrete, asbestos-cement sheets. The thickness of the vertical walls made of concrete, is close to 15 centimeters, and in brick - masonry regardless of technology 12 or 25 centimeters. The thickness of the wall of rubble stone reaches an average of 25 centimeters.
If the material for constructioncellar has been selected the land, the building previously recommended inside sheathe tree. It is not desirable to build a cellar of metal because it can be a problem with maintaining the desired temperature.
Cellar with his own hands? Easily
Surely, after reading the article and studying video materials, making use of the cellar facilities, you illuminate the idea and implement it. Let us proceed.
Roy pit under the rules
Cellar is recommended to build in the summer, becauseground water at this time of the year are at the lowest level. Select is the most favorable period without precipitation, since the pit should not add water. Dig will have a lot: a cellar hole should be deep enough to not walk hunched over in the store. Make a pit should be oblong: what form would the cellar was not designed, need a place for gentle steps.
Pit digging cellars for more than half a meterthe size of the structure. This is convenient for the work. Pit digging yourself better, not to damage the natural base coat. On top of the excavated pit must be placed overlapping.
With these objectives can be used thickboards, beams, slabs. If you decide to do the boards or beams, is to cover them with putty of chopped straw and clay. Overlapping after drying putty is necessary to fill the earth layer, after making a hole in it and inserting a tube for ventilation.
Specificity arrangement of walls
So now we construct the cellar with their hands! If you want to make your own inexpensive cellar, you should think about inexpensive wall covering. The easiest option considered adobe walls. It takes just clay, water and chopped straw. Kneading solution recommended so as to be elastic and viscous. Apply the solution is 3-4 layers, each time waiting for the complete drying. Walls can be on top of clay wash-board sheathing croaker. There are other, more fundamental options: walls can impose the old brick or make the formwork and pour concrete wall.
Comfortable floor and stage
How to build a cellar with their hands toin the storage atmosphere it was appropriate for the content of vegetables? It is best to contribute to the earthen floor. At the base of the pit should pour gravel layer that you want to compact the quality, pour the hot bitumen and allow to cool. Top should arrange adobe floor. A good option is considered to cement. The floor finishing is often practiced with cement - the process when on top of concrete strewn dry cement and redress it.
To the cellar was a convenient, will have to spendtime creating steps. First you need to dig a "ladder" and then standing on the steps of compacted earth. After that, the formwork must be made of plywood or old boards. Formwork make only prostupenkov - side surfaces of steps above a horizontal plane so that the steps to fill the plate. To this end, a solution with the cement, sand and gravel in a ratio of 1: 3: 3. Prostupenki can impose a brick, and put on the tread plates of artificial stone or concrete.
To construct the roof and the door
The construction of the cellar with their hands impliesperforming protection its top. Above the structure, you can build a gable roof of boards, which should be more than the cellar, cover the pit on each side by 40-50 centimeters - this will save the building from flowing into the water during rain. Door cellar mandatory is warm, for example, multiple layers of foam, then it is worth to upholster with leatherette or oilcloth.
Wiring in the cellar
The cellar is accepted to do an external isolatedwiring. Use cable with double insulation and copper conductor. It is better to turn to consultants to find out which wire is suitable for use in the cellar.
Bulbs recommended protective covercaps. It is necessary to place the lamps in a dry place and use only water resistant material. It is best to attach a light bulb in the corridor, because this is considered the safest option. The switches should be placed at a height of 1.5 meters at the entrance. But the outlet in the cellar must not be installed.
Features cellar waterproofing
An important issue in the construction of the cellar is consideredwaterproofing. Waterproofing materials are separated into 2 types: non-pressure and protivonapornye. Protivonapornye materials should be used, if the water level reaches the level of the floor in the cellar by the water pressure. Unconfined materials are used, if the ground water does not reach the floor.
The floor and walls must be watertight andstrong, not to the structure collapsed due to groundwater. If the red brick building was chosen, it must be sure to handle with cement mortar to improve the strength of the material. As a further strengthening of roofing material can be used.
To protect the structure from the harmful effectswater, to put around the drainage layer, which is designed to eject water. Drainage made to connect with a special well dug near the cellar. Drainage can be purchased at any hardware store, but you can also take the remains of the brick, wood chips and pebbles.
Drainage alternating layers with excavated soil, itbe sure to tamp. A more reliable option is to perform filling with clay, so will be more durable waterproofing. To reduce the pressure of the ground water, it is necessary to build a blind area - a kind of container with a slope for water drainage, whose dimensions are close to 0.5 - 2 meters in width.
If building is protected from groundwater pressurewater, it is possible to execute waterproofing warmed bitumen to be applied to the wall surface to create a protective film. Before applying the wall is necessary to process the bitumen cement mortar. Implement bitumen insulation is recommended in two layers. Walls should sprinkle sand bitumen during drying.
Methods of Ventilation Organization
If you are planning to build a cellar with their handsvideo and photo collection will help to carry out all the work! Hood is considered the key to successful storage of "stocks for the winter." Dampness and unnecessary odors in this case, not stay in the room, there will always be fresh air. The stretching in the cellar of a traditional can equip two ways. Natural ventilation is organized with the help of two pipes - the exhaust and supply air. Hood is based on the temperature difference between the interior spaces and the street, and therefore forms a constant air circulation.
Flues installed near the ceiling, itthe end of a roof above the cellar level by half a meter. The heated air through the exhaust pipe comes out. Ventilation tube is mounted at the bottom of the cellar (5 - 10 cm above the floor line). From pests and insects protect its metal mesh and the ends covered with mini-roofs. Inside equip flaps to regulate air circulation.
Forced ventilation is created cellarsartificial way - by means of special fans. The device remains the same. Also, the air exchange can be carried out through a two-step tube. It is inserted into the cavity and an electric fan, which creates an air vortex. Driving out of the air space, provided fresh air. Forced Cellar ventilation is necessary in the summer when air circulation is not due to the high outdoor temperatures. That is why decided to combine the above methods.
Operation of the finished buildings
Like any other room for contentproducts, cellar should be kept clean. In the summer is a mandatory procedure for airing and drying. The structure can not store flammable materials such as gasoline, kerosene and others. And it's not just the rules of fire safety, but also that the pungent smell of gasoline or kerosene is well absorbed foods that are in the cellar, leading products in disrepair.
Many gardeners begin in the middle of summer ready for harvest tab, which aerate and dried cellar and other repositories. For a good drying is not always enough to open a pipe and ventilation hatch in the cellar, because the air is heavy and cold in the building, and because of this natural draft is not created. Usually it is taken to dry to install the stove-burzhujku and produce warming of the walls. It can be a simpler way to create the necessary thrust to dry - with the help of an ordinary candle.
A good host one that can not onlyharvest, but also to organize its storage properly. That is why today is so popular repository of our ancestors: Labasa cellars, glaciers, piles and excavation pits.