How to build a cellar in the country with their own hands
Having a private house, kitchen garden orfarmland, without cellar can not do. After all, rich crops require a reliable hiding place, where they could be stored without rotting and rotting. The question of the storage of vegetables, food preparations and juicy fruit is better to think at the stage of flatness suburban area or at home, then head to this did not hurt. Good cellar with their hands can build, if you know a few tricks and secrets. Read our article like this To make the mind and with minimum cost.
- Preparatory work
- Groundwater and soil: define humidity and removes the question of location
- How to determine the proximity to groundwater
- As the fight for a dry cellar
- A couple of words about the waterproofing
- The general principles of construction
- How do poluzaglublenny cellar
- cellar ventilation device
You need to build your own cellarprovide a few moments: the relief features of the site, humidity, soil structure and the depth of the groundwater, the depth of soil freezing in the colder months.
Groundwater and soil: define humidity and removes the question of location
Under the cellar is best to choose the mostdry place, it is better if it will be area with a bias - so work with the arrangement and the digging will be less. Before you make the cellar with their hands, you need to determine how close to the surface in your area lie the groundwater. If you get a handle on this issue, consider half the battle is already ready. You must have at least a rough idea of how much water reservoir, and whether they are in general, to know what kind of water are deep.
Groundwater reservoirs are divided into two types:
- Ground water (formed by the condensation of atmospheric precipitation, soil percolation).
- Vadose (a direct consequence of the melting of snow, prolonged rains, are seasonal in nature - such water is temporary, usually does not have a permanent make-up, showers passed - gone and perched).
What is safe water level for constructioncellar with their hands? - One that will not provoke the decay of your stocks. The optimal level is less than half a meter below the level at which you are planning to make the floor of his cellar. Thus, if moisture is perched or ground is, for example, at 2,5metra from the ground surface below the house cellar can not bury more than 2 meters.
How to determine the proximity to groundwater
You can do this in two ways:
- To study the vegetation in the area - if the territory is dominated by moisture-loving marsh grass (mother-and-stepmother, sedge, reed, sorrel), close the water.
- Test the soil in an egg and wool. This is done as follows: wool wad degreased in soap water and dried. Take a piece of land, cleared of turf, put him six top -only that demolished the egg. This case cover with a pan or clay pot, sheltering shot from above the turf. The next day will see the result - if the egg remains dry, and only grew moist wool, water deeply, if both elements are dry, do not worry about anything. But if the condensate remains on the hair, and on the egg, you can not build a basement. Note: This technique works adequately only in a stable, dry weather.
As the fight for a dry cellar
If there is no choice, and there is no on site dryterritory, and the cellar is still needed, you can cheat nature, win a place for the storage of reserves: before digging the foundation pit for the approximate perimeter of the dig pits for half a meter deep and 40 cm in diameter, they will serve to collect the excess fluid. Flocked to remove water as the filling pits.
Also remember: deepening the main pit, must be proportionate and delete headers. After reaching the desired depth, align the bottom of the cellar, good tamp the surface, put a layer of clay Mighty necessarily fat (2-3 cm is enough). Do not wait until the clay is dry, fill the surface of the 10-centimeter layer of concrete (not below the mark m-300). After a week or two on top lay a cement screed. Finish - a floor will support the increased moisture easily.
A couple of words about the waterproofing
Exterior waterproofing cellar is simple - withusing heated bitumen on the walls, ceiling and floor of the room creates a waterproof film in the thickness of 2-3 mm, which reliably protects your vegetables and harvesting of excess moisture.
For this pre-align andoshtukaturte all treated surfaces using cement mortar (sand and cement in a ratio of 1: 2), powertrowel and cover with bitumen or resort to penetrating waterproofing - Penetron or Kalmatron.
If the soil is too clayey and watery,Construct a clay castle for water in the cellar with their own hands - a video on how to do this, it is sufficient in the Internet. For this exercise you will need to sand, gravel and pipes. Drainage is installed under the floor of the underground facilities. It is better if you can make a way out for the removal of water in a special water collection well or ditch.
The general principles of construction
Like any underground structures, it is best to dig a cellar in the summer - at a time when groundwater go as deep as possible. Also, follow a few simple rules:
- for convenience during the concreting and waterproofing works on the pit do 50-60 cm wider and deeper than the depth of the proposed area and cellar;
- Embodiment optimum walls - monolithic dense concrete walls (sand into two parts take a share of cement 500 m, min);
- Wall thickness must be between 20 and 30 cm, strengthen the construction of valves or even steel wire - so your structure will be stronger;
- Insulate cellar walls from inside with mineral wool lining made of wood; the ceiling is insulated usually expanded clay layer at 10-20 cm (it is also desirable to build on top of the cellar closed gazebo);
- for safe lighting wires lay in the ripple and choose waterproof cover to nowhere does not whiling away;
- in order to avoid changes in temperature thermostat Construct or purchase ready-made, it will help extend the shelf life of your products.
In order to avoid rotting of fruits and vegetables, as well asmold on the walls and the products themselves, you need to take care of supply and exhaust ventilation facilities. To do this in the cellar install two pipes at different levels and in opposite mestah.Kachestvennaya cellar ventilation - a very brief exhaust pipe near the ceiling and air-jet pipe at a height of half a meter from the floor. If the air still circulates poorly, you can use an ordinary fan mounted directly on the exhaust pipe.
How to calculate the need for additional ventilation:
- The static damp cellar.
- The air is always a musty, stale, breathing heavily.
- Perishable products, and begin to rot, "to smell."
- The appearance of mold.
To humidity decreased, spend time to time through ventilation with quicklime.
Wiring in the cellar - the question is notthe last in importance, as in conditions of high humidity ordinary wire can pose a threat not only to health, but also the life of the host reserves that are stored in the cellar. Therefore precautions should not be neglected in this matter. Be sure to use step-down transformers are used to protect wiring metal hose corrugation. Lamps must be tight, and switches - to be outside of your underground storage.
How do poluzaglublenny cellar
There are three types of cellars: terrestrial, poluzaglublennye and buried. The most common and practical option recognized poluzaglublenny option. Construct it is quite simple:
- cellar Ground deepened up to 1 meter, allowing you to build a building, even in conditions of soil moisture.
- The walls are built of concrete slabs or normal bricks.
- The ceiling is made of slabs, moisture protect his clay grease, roofing material is laid on top.
- Next, you need to take care of ventilation, lighting and waterproofing. Also, do not forget to make the drainage grooves.
cellar ventilation device
If you follow these truisms undergroundfruit and vegetable store, your crops will be safe and sound for a long time. Do not ignore the laws of physics and safety measures, and all you get.