Wiring in the garage with his hands
For the vast majority of the strong halfour country's garage - it's not just a place to store the car, but also a workshop, utility room, store tools, spare parts and other equipment. Therefore, often, good lighting is not a luxury, but a necessity. Average "elektronabor" of each garage is composed of several lighting devices located in different zones, and energized by their switches lighting observation holes and the basement, as well as two or three outlets, providing more power for power consumers. Conducting electricity in the garage - the process is not very complicated. Therefore, wiring no surprise in the garage with his hands, in order to properly carry out its installation rather elementary skills of working with electricity.
- Nuances of the installation of wiring in the garage
- Development wiring scheme
- Electrical tools and equipment
- Installation of electrical wiring garage
- The outside of the device
- Internal wiring
- Lighting observation holes and basement
- Safety rules
Nuances of the installation of wiring in the garage
As a rule, rarely happens in the garage, in addition to his master, so in the first place at installation of electrical wiring out qualities such as functionality andsafety, but the aesthetic component moves into the background, if not the third. It can be argued, but what about the hidden wiring in the garage? Stealth - this requirement is not likely aesthetics and safety, as cables, carried out inside the walls, under a hidden location protected from a variety of mechanical damage. Of course, if the walls of the garage are made of sheet metal, then about any secrecy in the walls can be no question, but in this case there are various metal hoses, corrugated pipe and other boxes that reduce the risk exposure to the wire.
To increase the security ofelectrical devices, it is recommended to commissioning the switchboard set separate grounding device. The simplest version of the ground: Metal rods 15-16 mm in diameter, vertically dug into the ground and connected by a steel band. The resistance of such a device should not exceed 4 ohms.
Since the garage, thanks to moisture and conductivethe walls, the structure is considered to be high-risk, all attributes (sockets, lights and switches) should have a high degree of protection against dust and water, IP44 in the ideal.
If the garage is planned to establish thisworkshop, you need to take care of the three-phase input. In this case, you will need a cable with copper wires and a sectional area of 5-10 square millimeters, and shield calculated not less than 18 units. But it's not important ...
The important thing is that before thethree-phase power supply system, you must obtain permission and technical conditions in the local Energosbyt, each item that you want to be sure to comply.
Development wiring scheme
In order to avoid mistakes during installation and makeAll right, you need circuit wiring in the garage - a plan which details all the places marked sockets placement, circuit breakers, electric cables, etc. The basic rules of this process:
- The chart must be extremely accurate to note all the lighting location of devices, boxes, switches and sockets.
- The elements are interconnected solely by straight lines at right angles to each other. Compound starts from the switchboard.
- It should be noted ways to connect each element. Probably everyone remembers that the lamp switches are connected only in series and socket necessarily located before the switch.
- It should be noted that the distance from the wire to the ceiling should not be less than 100 mm from the wall to the floor at least 500 mm, and the main switch is located on the right side of the gate at a height of 1500 mm.
Further wiring diagram in the garage is transferred to the wall. Exact straight line can be easily applied with a long cord, dipped in dye.
Electrical tools and equipment
The next step - preparing all that you may need a person to think about how to carry out the wiring in the garage. So, be sure to need the following equipment:
- hammer, chisel, screwdriver, pliers and cutting pliers with insulated handles;
- drill and more drill;
- masking tape and plaster;
- Hammer (in case concrete wall garage);
- hardware (anchors, screws, screws);
- electric devices (you can get a screwdriver-indicator).
The main element of power - electriccable. It is best proven copper cables with, but you can use aluminum products, however, their conductive properties are somewhat lower. Additionally, you need to purchase corrugated pipe, assembly and installation boxes, receptacles, lighting, adapters, step-down transformers and switches.
Installation of electrical wiring garage
Electrification of the garage can be divided into two stages:
- outdoor wiring (from power lines before entering the premises);
- the internal wiring in the garage.
If the internal wiring in the garage with his handsoften mounted, the external work must always be performed by a qualified electrician with access to work with high-voltage lines.
Important: Before summing up the electricity to the garage project must be agreed with the local authority power company.
Let us consider how to make the wiring in the garage and the outside and inside.
The outside of the device
There are two ways of power transmissionelectric pillar to the structure: air and underground. When selecting usually guided by factors such as the relative positions of the garage with other objects. If the garage is located at a distance greater than 25 m from the power line, for cable the air will need extra poles. The height of the wire placement must be:
- about buildings - more than 2.75 m;
- on the footpath - more than 3.75 m;
- over the road - more than 6 m.
Entering air line runs through a wall onnot less than 2.75 m. For this purpose the outside of the garage on special hooks are attached insulators so that the distance between the cables was more than 0.2 m.
Tip: to drill holes in the wall under the input wires should be sloping outwards. This will prevent the ingress of water into it.
Before entering the garage must be insulated with plastic or rubber tubes, and after - all cracks carefully repaired cement or alabaster.
Some owners of garages lowa reasonable question arises, how to do the wiring in the garage, if it does not exceed the height of 2.75 m? How to get Energonadzor permission for such a project? Surely in this case you will have to do without electricity? Well, of course not. Just in this case you need to install a so-called trubostoyku - stainless steel tube, whose upper end is bent 180 ° and is equipped with receiving insulators. This arrangement makes it possible to enter the electrical wires even through the roof. Trubostoyka Fastened to the rafters of the roof.
A few words must be said about the undergroundgarage electrification method. In this case, the cable is located in the ground and protected by a steel duct. The garage wires are introduced through the prepared hole in the foundation. Cables passing through the entry point, make sure the tube is protected to the same for each wire prepared a separate opening.
At the end of the electrician carrying out the externalwiring, cables must bring to the input box with the electric meter and fuse. And further, if the decision to conduct an independent Lighting inside the garage, It takes a host.
Internal wiring can be open, or maybe hidden. As mentioned above, in the metal and wood structures is very difficult to carry concealed installation, so for these garages actual open way. In this case, the cables are attached to baseboards or special metal or plastic boxes. More effective for open wiring flat wire (eg, APPV, PPV, ASDP), as well as unarmored cables protected.
On the walls are attached with tin wire staples,nails or dowels at a distance of no more than 0.4 m. The layout is required to carry out horizontally, 20 cm from the ceiling, and the boxes are glued or screwed screws.
The brick and stone buildings more popularconcealed wiring. It is best to perform all works plastering walls, in this case, you need only follow the correct installation of the equipment, that is, that after plastering not peeping, such as junction boxes region. If, however, the electrification is performed after application of the plaster, you will need to cut down the walls of shallow grooves (5-6 mm - more than enough), that after laying them, and harness their fastening nails, carefully closed up.
Important: the main feature of the flush-mounted - the need for soldering wire ends to be connected. This prevents their oxidation and unwinding. After that, the connection is usually fixed with tape.
Lighting observation holes and basement
None of the car owner, has its own garage,can not do without a viewing hole. And in the basement can be rightly called a mandatory attribute of any garage. Neither there nor there without the lighting can not do. It would seem that can be connected to portable lighting, and inspection pit, cellar and garage are usually characterized by high humidity and are considered high-risk premises. That is why the voltage in these parts should not exceed 42 volts, and therefore need a small step down transformer to wiring.
Naturally, when setting down the equipment must be purchased lamps and electric tools designed for such a small voltage.
Important: The work in the basement garage or in the observation well with a conventional electrical equipment is dangerous to life.
That's why-that is, I have confidence thatdecided to hold their own electricity in your garage, rarely ... Yes that there to be modest, most likely, no one look into the safety requirements. Well, we do not like to read books is so serious. Therefore, the article would be incomplete without some of the main points of this extremely important topic.
So, let's begin:
- Perform any repair and replacementwiring for electricity held in the room and even on the replacement of sockets and light bulbs, only in the absence of voltage. This can be simple to unscrew the plug, if they still have you set, or disable plug-machine guns and machine guns in the control panel of the apartment.
- Clothing and shoes should be comfortable, not to impede movement.
- All power must be an integer, with no exposed wires and poor quality of their connections;
- Ordinary tools should not only be an integer, but with insulated handles.
- To perform work at a height of special platforms or goats should be used instead of drums, blocks, tables and chairs on the other all your favorite design.
- Most importantly, take your time, do not forget about their safety.
And finally, treat with great responsibilityto this case. After all, the correct wiring ensures its operation for 30 years. Any wrong step, banal laziness (eg, neglect soldering wires) can damage the entire electrical network, while a hidden installation lead to serious repair work. Therefore, if you are at least a shred of doubt, invite this electricians are able to quickly and easily cope with the electrical installation in the garage.