The quickest way to the construction of the foundations of the building -It is the foundation of the blocks. This method though has several drawbacks, though much more advantageous in terms of time than, for example, the construction of a monolithic foundation. Of course, any builder will tell you that working with a seamless, smooth surface is much more convenient, but to ensure that the concrete has reached the desired condition, will have to wait almost a month, that is not profitable nor the builders nor the customer. But the foundation block is much easier life and makes it easy to fit into an already tight schedule our short spring or autumn.
- The first stage - the choice of concrete products
- Classification of concrete blocks
- The second stage - the soil markings
- The third stage - construction
- The technology of construction of foundation construction of the blocks
- Columnar type of foundation for the house
- Strip foundation of the blocks
- Disadvantages of foam concrete foundation elements
The first stage - the choice of concrete products
Before the construction of the foundation, it is necessary to choose high-quality concrete blocks, because it will depend on the strength of the entire structure of the building.
- The first (and most important) the selection criteria -This load limit, which will be provided on the basis of the future structure. The indicator for each product subject to the production process at the plant has its own figures.
- Pay attention to the indicator of frost units. The higher it is, the more severe conditions will be able to sustain your foundation.
- Look for the presence and in the concrete of crushed granite, which increases the resistance of the basics at home to acidic soil.
- Decide on the size of the blocks. So, for the construction of small objects (cottage, garage, sauna) samples using lightweight concrete blocks, and for the more massive buildings is better to use large product, which will work much faster.
Classification of concrete blocks
If you are wondering how to make the foundation of the blocks, then you should know and that these same units are of two types: pillow and the wall.
First trapezoid sectional form that helpsdecently increase their reference area. These blocks are most commonly used for laying the foundation of the bottom row, which will ensure maximum strength and stability of the entire structure. A second quadrilateral are shaped and may have lateral cutouts for denser mating with each other. Their purpose - formation of underground and ground part of the foundations of the future building.
Thus, the construction of block foundationsIt meant by a wall and use, and the pillow of concrete blocks. But there is a caveat that it is worth considering in order to facilitate their future work - it is desirable that the blocks have technological holes and slots for the construction of communications, otherwise you may have to chisel them in concrete, which is very problematic.
There are three types of blocks:
- FSF - concrete blocks U-shaped
- FB - blocks with cutouts for utilities
- PBS - undrilled solid blocks.
All of them are quite heavy, sotheir transportation and laying require the involvement of lifting equipment, which could result in substantial costs. But the output is still there - it is possible to build the foundation of blocks measuring 20 * 20 * 40 cm, which are designed specifically for the construction of small buildings. Such articles are made from concrete and made of lightweight materials, for example, of expanded clay. This "light" basis without any problems can withstand the weight of the bath or a single garage, as well as providing structural strength and at the same time its insulation. In addition, blocks of expanded clay are much cheaper than other counterparts, but there is one thing that it is necessary to take into account when buying a product - it is their density, which should have a ratio of not less than 1500 - 1800 kg / cubic meter. Unfortunately, check the indicator "by eye" is impossible, so the only advice that in this case it is possible to buy only the blocks in place and tested by a reliable manufacturer.
The second stage - the soil markings
At this stage of construction it is necessaryproduce soil markup: to outline the boundaries of the future construction and foundation. Do it best with metal pegs, ropes and building meters.
Important: when marking is necessary to consider that the width of the base should be larger than the width of the wall.
After marking on the finished work,you can begin to prepare the ground for the construction of the foundation, and for different types of foundations for the future homes or other structures carry out various earthworks. Thus, the need for columnar foundations by marking the perimeter and inside dig holes about half to two meters deep, and for a belt-type topsoil is removed and the trench is dug, which should be greater for blocks of several centimeters.
Important: The depth of the trench depends on the type of soil: for sandstone aquifer with depth more than 2 meters will be enough to dig a trench depth of 30-40 cm, and in other cases will have to go to a decent distance.
The third stage - construction
If the first two steps are preparatory in nature, the third stage - the stage of the main building, to which should be taken very seriously.
The technology of construction of foundation construction of the blocks
Engineering construction of any type of foundation blocks is approximately the same.
- All of the foundation elements are fastened togetherordinary cement mortar, which is prepared immediately prior to laying. During work on the construction of the foundation in the water solution or the cement can not be, because the excess of one or the other can weaken the contact.
- The blocks are stacked on top of each other similar to the masonry. The minimum permitted deviation from the horizontal rows of block no more than 15 mm per 10 meters of masonry.
- All joints and seams should be filled with a solution to the maximum, so as not to leave any gaps and holes.
Columnar type of foundation for the house
This type of foundation can be attributed to the mostcheapest option erection of the foundations of the future building. It is a certain amount of support pedestals, dug deep into the ground. These tables have a marking on the perimeter and inside. Apply pier foundation for light constructions such as wooden bath-houses, garages and cottages. By the way, he elevated enough to quickly and easily (in one day you can have time to finish all the work related to the foundation).
Along the perimeter of the future structure of the preparedpit mounted pedestals height of not less than 40 centimeters. Number of cabinets depends on the size and weight of the building. But before you do the installation of concrete pillars, you must first prepare well. To do this, rammed bottom suitable for this tool (you can even take the usual long stick), then go to sleep gravel (approximately 10-12 cm) and sand (5-7 cm). Aligns the surface of the sand and set the first row of blocks, fixing them with cement mortar.
Build a the foundation of their own hands of the blocks is quite simple, but there is a caveat,which must always be taken into account. The fact that the slightest inaccuracy or error can cause distortions to correct that later will be problematic (cement has already hardened), so in the construction pier foundation is necessary to carefully monitor the level of cabinets using a rope stretched between the supports.
Strip foundation of the blocks
Strip foundation for the house of the blocks is ideal for the construction of buildings of brick or cinder block. It is a concrete ribbon located under all load-bearing structural elements.
And in the first and in the second case for the construction offoundation is best to use blocks of expanded clay, because they are much lighter (approximately 30 kg) than conventional concrete, and their size allows you to work without much stress and difficulties.
Strip foundation from foundation blocksis being built on a scheme similar to the scheme of construction of the columnar foundation, just filter "cushion" of sand and gravel is placed in the trench. To use a lower number of pillow blocks, and begin laying their need with the corners and intersections of walls of the future. Installing the corner pieces, you should use the level to check the installation is correct and only then you can start laying further, focusing on the rope, which is stretched between the first blocks. After finishing work on the installation of the bottom row, you need to put the waterproofing layer that will prevent the ingress of moisture to the foundation.
Next, with the help of metal pins mark places for Lighthouse wall elements of the second row, the bottom row cover cement mortar and set the next row of blocks.
Disadvantages of foam concrete foundation elements
Of course, the foundation arrangement of the blocks hasmany advantages, among which in the first place, of course, the speed of installation. But this advantage is both a disadvantage, because the cost of precast foundation almost 30% higher than monolithic. In addition, the issue price may rise by 20-25%, if you choose to build large blocks, transportation and installation of which requires additional costs.
Another fat minus - intermediate seams through which can penetrate moisture or rot. Prevent sad outcome can only be by means of a thorough sealing.
Now that you know how to build the foundation of the blocks, you know the nuances of this process and its shortcomings, it remains only to start. Good luck!