How to make a solid foundation with his own hands
Construction of the foundation for the future of the house is a very important step in the entire construction process. When planning to lay solid the foundation of their own hands, Necessary to advance allpreparatory work. These include not only the registration of land ownership, but also the mandatory examination of soil at the construction site. foundation type will be determined depending on the soil properties, the severity of the planned buildings and facilities that are available to the developer.
- The foundation monolithic - ready for construction
- Belt type monolithic foundation, construction technology
- Construction of monolithic foundation slab type
Monolithic foundation - this type of foundation,optimally suitable for the construction of the territories close proleganiya groundwater and subsidence and heaving soils. He also serves as a concrete pad, protecting the basement, and the basement and the first floor from the negative effects of moisture.
Monolithic foundation is considered one of the most durable and reliable. The advantages that the foundation has a solid, include:
- lack of destruction in contact with moisture;
- the ability to withstand heavy loads;
- speed of erection;
- low cost.
The construction of two types of bookmarks solid foundations:
- Tape solid foundation
- Monolithic slab foundation
The foundation monolithic - ready for construction
For the self-construction of a monolithic foundation you need to take care of the presence of the appropriate tools and construction equipment. You will need:
- a few pieces of the bayonet or a shovel;
- cord for marking;
- building level;
- ribbed rebar for reinforcement of diameter 10-14 mm;
- hook and wire for knitting fittings;
- cement, sand and gravel;
- material for the formwork;
- carpentry tools for the construction of the formwork;
- construction equipment.
Belt type monolithic foundation, construction technology
Strip foundation is closedtape with a greater bearing surface that is suitable for the construction of all types of buildings - from concrete, wood, stone, brick, and houses built on the frame-panel technology.
The device monolithic foundation belt type is as follows:
- To mark the site of the future construction. The width of a standard monolithic strip foundation is about 400 mm.
- Noting the future foundation around the perimeter,need to be strengthened at the corners of the valve and check the angles using the protractor, or by simply measuring the diagonals. After that, around the perimeter of cord is stretched or for marking a solid string.
- Trenching has to start with the lowestpoint, excluding differences in height of the foundation of the future. When dry, firm ground and the small size of future houses is enough to use a trench depth of 80-100 cm. In loose soil the trench should be at 10-15 cm lower than the level of soil freezing.
- Another important point is the construction ofsand "cushion", the thickness of which must be at least 30 cm. In this case it is required a thorough compaction. This will evenly distribute the load and minimize the future effects of shrinkage.
- Further, dug trenches set formwork,which from the inside is lined with waterproofing material to prevent leakage of the cement mixture. Decking thus should rise above the ground at 30 cm.
- Reinforcement of the foundation allows us to give a highstrength, not only increasing resistance to compressive loads, but also the tensile stress and bending. Reinforcement is done by individual metal rods or specially fabricated steel structures. To be inside the monolith, reinforcing mesh must retreat from the surfaces of 50 mm.
- Before pouring the foundation necessary to take careabout waterproofing, otherwise, because of possible groundwater the process of destruction of the foundation. One of the most effective ways of protection is the use of Penetron, as well as a number of other modern waterproofing materials. The use of these materials helps to make the entire array of concrete waterproof.
- Then begins a phased casting processeach compacted concrete layer. For reliability, the design must be completely exclude the presence of voids in the array. Also, it is best to pour concrete at a time, this will avoid the joints and so-called "cold joints".
Construction of monolithic foundation slab type
Monolithic slab foundation - the technology applied in the case of soil instability.
This foundation will serve more than one hundred years with careful adherence to all building regulations during the construction.
Technology Bookmark this foundation is as follows:
- First, excavated pit, the depth of which will depend on the height of the basement. The minimum depth of the pit should be at least 30 cm.
- After preparing the pit must be dug trenches for laying drainage pipes, and at the bottom of the pit put a layer of sand and gravel, carefully tamped it.
- When installing formwork need to take care ofits waterproofing. As the protective roofing material may be coated on top of a thick polyethylene or modern waterproofing materials. Further, the heat insulating layer is laid.
- Horizontal foundation reinforcement is a bunch of using reinforcement mesh 20x20 or 30x30 cm. The best option would be to put two layers of reinforcing mesh at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other.
- This is followed by casting process wherein it should be noted that the minimum thickness of the concrete slab must not be less than 30 cm.
Construction of monolithic foundation - is a complex and expensive process, impatient stops.
However, planning for the construction, it should be remembered that solid foundation has such advantages as:
- the possibility of raising to the moving ground;
- ease of installation;
- short construction time.